Class Note for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA
Class Note for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Lecture 20 10 Nov 2003 Groves et al 2002 Walther et al 2002 Ecological Footprint Conservation Biology ECOL 406R506R University of Arizona Fall 2003 Kevin Bonine 1 Walther paper Groves paper 2 Ecological Footprint 3 Thank you card 4 Bob Steidl on Wednesday 5 Group Presentation Monday httpwwwucmpberkeleyeduvene bratscoelacanthcoelacm mshmil Groves et al 2002 TNC Seven Step Program Identify Conservation Targets Collect Information and Identify Gaps Establish Conservation Goals Assess Existing Conservation Areas Evaluate Likelihood of Persistence Assemble Portfolio of Conservation Areas Identify Priority Conservation Areas lCDU39IhUJNI I Landscapes gt 1 type habitat Habitat Loss and Degradation Scale Ecoregions Species and Ecological Processes Focal Species Management of Conservation Areas left until later Scale Biediveraity and scale FEEIi lqu F1IIDIIIIIv1dquotI 393 Regionalscale means Charactefi ta 39u39i l eul sun39lg q r m PEI1141 ITI39ISFif Matrlx tantrumu 39quot39 L 39 umurllwn 1 39 s39E lie rHEI39Hi EiZJlIJI 2x Seamanscam squ r Wirelth gt u l39 Eulrpb twp2715 a ladrsraugrrpzn39 il39 II MII 1L 392 Lain patch my ams Iquot Irulvzmcl JrJctum quot rn nan E HUI A 39In 3914 r quotq 3quot 5391quotquot quotquotquot 39393 quot 39 I 1 2 Italimt ihgtrJ 239 l EWEI Q IE E e 39quot I 39 I Lur E I WEE r IIG 39II139ull39wHI I Iull l In AIN g Inquot I j39 3 quota u i Gagtmnrrhiig tall Mn d w a my w Jquot ansha r ueihrxm tmrviauevs 5 I Lima 393 I man It Inward ml rlmtlnrgs quotutnunlqc l39 H mamquot 51 5 Hil39fll EI IEIENIIEIFI CI 39EIIIfllilnri 1 3 R If ll gmn39 3 39er spnrm sa r n rrmi39 i39rwfs 15 i39cahagfrrri Jrgmrizm fmn Cunswwmmu 11 ng m be 1quoti tFIL39L ri39 can e m39rryrn39ing m rm gratin smh s wn him m rrgitmm39 I39i39mgwmm1ng m six6 039rLquotL39I39HJquotl 39S in Hid spaari rvrl sum is nd in mi re ml hifr qfrflr pprmm ril mul39 some gmmmf dmrm fe risnw nfi39Ir39 apps qfru15ur1wrfnu 111 ng uquot5m39i 39s mud l S39Iv39i t l39i ii am Shawn ml rim rJgi39Irm Rrprnm ri39 rmH Pm mn mai ri k M39erpc39ni39iissimL Groves et al 1 Identi Conservation Targets Biodiversity 1 Composition 2 Structure 3 Function Biotic ancl Abiotic Surrogates Species Communities Ecosystems Threatened Endemic Focal Keystone Course Filter vs Fine Filter Data Availability 2 Collect Information and Identi Ga s Data Land ownership Human population Biology cology Gap Analysis Rapid Assessment Pulse etc 3 Establish Conservation Goals How much where Quality vs Quantity Environmental and Disturbance Gradients Replication 4 Assess Existing Conservation Areas Which components of conservation targets already protected 5 Evaluate Likelihood of Persistence Think long term Incorporate Natural and Human Disturbances 1 W mm REES iwbor 2w Slicxs thiess 1 Size 2 Condition 3 Landscape context processes connectivity Lisled Species Richncss and Habitat Boundaries Figure 3 6 Assemble Portfolio of Conservation Areas What areas will be consistent with targetsgoals Based on size or ownership etc 7 Identi Priorim Conservation Areas Resources and sympathy are Finite Degree of existing protection Conservation value Threat Feasibility Leverage What happens to the solar radiation that reaches the earth Energy in Energy out ellaoled by lmosphere 34 1 billionth solar output Radialed bv almusp here as heai 55 UV reclaim visible and ultraviolet UV Lower slralrysph39cre ozone laverl Visible Greenhouse Iighl Tvoposphere ewect Herzl f greenhouse gases water vapor C02 methane nitrous oxide ozone autotrophsprimary productivty Miller 2003 V9 Figure 211 The ilow oi energy lo and irom the earth Greenhouse Effect earth s surface absorbs or reflects reflected either into space or absorbed by gases greenhouse gases heat up and emit infrared radiation a Fiays oi sunlight penetrate b The earth s surface absorbs much or ihe incoming c As concehrraiiohs oi greenhouse ihe lower atmosphere and soiar radiation and degrades ii to ionger waveiength gases riser their moiecuiss absqrhari u warm the earth s stiriace inirared radiation heart which rises into ihe iower emit more i39riirared radialioni whioh an atmosphere Some or this heat escapes into space and more heat to the iowerairnospheret some is absorbed by moiecuies oi greenhouse gases i and emitted as infrared radiation which warms the iower atmosphere 3 Figure 212 The greenhouse effeci Without the atmospheric warming provided by this neiurai errecti r u arih worrio be a cold and mostly ii39eiess pianei According to the Wideiy accepted greenhouse iheoryr when Concentrations oi greenhouse gases in the atmosphere rise the average tamperaiure oi me troposphere aiso rises Modified by permission rrom Cecie Stan Bioogy Concerns and Primerglee 4th ed Pacino Grove Miller 2003 Ceiir 39 BrooksCore 2000 AZDStar 05 Nov 2003 IRANSPOIIAIION m 09le zoo O ssend dear gyu v lddkat of2005201 By Susanna Oaiilzo ARIZONA DAILV SYAR Tucson vatem rejected the idm ofpay ing higher faxes to improve bus service and build lightrail by defeating Propositions 200 and 201 on Tuesday A wouldbe mlebl atisn tgmed into a Samba gathering as mam belzs of Citizens far a Sensible 39h39ansporra on Salu on moni tored the Election results via com pater atMuse 516 N Mh Avenue Steve Farley spokesman for the d zens group said the e m tn murave mass transit will con ung We don t go away We keep falldngto people he said Proposition 201 wu defeated by percent to ampement of vot ers The haunt item called for in creasing the city39s regular sales tax and construction sales tax The higher taxes would have paid for transportation projech outlined in Proposition 201 which was def ated by percent to 36 percent Farley sai negative campaign ing conuibuted to the defeat of the two propositions However he admitted his gmup39s proposal SEE TRANSPORT A8 AZDStar 06 Nov 2003 Street car Ilne Citizens for a Sensible Trans Donation Solution is workmg on a plan to build a modern street czu39 line that would connect North Campbell Avenue the UA Downtown and Rio Nuevo Steve Farley spokesman for the group said the new plan tar gets precincts around the UA and Downtown where a majori ty of voters supported Proposi Lions 200 and 201 The propositions which called for salestax hikes to pay for better bus service and a lightrail line fared much worse in other parts of the city quotThis is in the very early stges of planningquot he said it s building on that strong loo el of support in the central cityquot Modern sireetcars are small er than lightrail cars They re also lighter so underground utilities would not have to he re located 7 which translates into lower costs Farley said area residents and businesses could form an improvement district to pay for the work through prop erty tax increases Farley plans to talk to resi dents and merchants about the idea and he said a more detailed plan will be ready in December Regional plan Last year PAG conducted an extensive public outreach effort to nd out what transportation upgrades are needed in the The Earlier plans 5 In the last two decades fire transportation proposals have been defeated by voters and one has passed a May 21 2002 Tucson voters rejected Propositions 100 and 400 by a margin pl 59 percent to El percent Proposition 100 was fora halitenhper dollar sales tax to pay for Proposition 400 a Illyear transportation plan Novlll997 Pima County s 350 million bond package loriransporlaiion improvements passed by a margin of 58 percent to 42 percent Nov 6 1990 Proposition 401 allowing o halfcent sales tax to pay for road improvements was rejected by 61 percent of Pima County voters Dec9l9ll6 lea County voters rejected Proposition by a margin of 57 percent to 43 percent It would have allowed a hallcent sales tax for road rmprovements a May 6 1986The 356 million proposed Speedway tunnel was reiected by 69 percent of Tucson voters Nov 61934 Proposition A the proposed Rilllto Parkway was rejected by a margin of 56 percent to 42 percent son area Based on that input the agency is creating several scenarios for the 2030 Regional Transportation Plan Each scenario will include a mix of transportation projects One may Emphasize road work while another may focus on mass transit In the Spring those scenarios will go back to the public for another round of input People will be asked which scenario they prefer and how they39re willing to pay for it Si Schorr a member of PAG s regional council and the State Transportation Board said the FAG plan is the best bet for reaching a community consen sus about transportation It has to address all modes of tral cquot he said And we need to let everyone lmow how they would stand to bene t from it W kup says the 2030 Region al Transportation Plan would outline all the projects that PAG would be responsible for imple menting should it become a re gional transportation authority PAG s regional council is ex peered to approve the nal ver sion of the 2030 plan in the all of 2005 Visit wwwpagnetorg to learn more about the plan County partnership The Tucson Metropolitan Chamber of Commerce is inter ested in improving Soulhein Arizona39s piece of Lhe Canamex corridor a highway route iat will eventually link Mexico with Canada It wants transportation plan hers in Pima County to form a partnership with planners in Pinal and Santa Cruz counties to identify improvements for L 10 and I19 quotOru39 aim is to develop thruways to move people from community to communityquot said John Dougheity the charm bar s director of governmental affairs He said o emendous growth along the 1le corridor near Tuc son and Casu Grande must be addressed by the counties Daugherty said the chamber will talk to state legislators about the idea Dennis Alvarez Tucson dis trict engineer or the Arizona Department of Transportation said the agency has conducted illdepth studies of Ill and 115 in the Tucson metropolitan area but be said it s hard to get funding to study the parts of the reeway that lie in Final and Santa Cruz counties We need all the support We can getquot he said quotThese coon ties are competing for funding statewide They re competing wi all the other rural coun tie I Contact Susanna Cariizo at 57341 75 or slconizo azsranzercom Vote by ward I All six Tucson wards voted against two propositions that called forhioher sales taxes to pay lortransporlation improve ments including extra pus serv ice and light rail People in Ward 4 disliked the transportation plan the most 74 percent of Sodlh east Side voters rejected the propositions The propositions were mosl popular in Midtown s Ward 6 where 49 percent of voi ers gave them a thumbsup Here are the ward39by ward results from Tuesday39s election PROPOSITION 200 Ward Yes No lWest Side 37 63 39 31 69 44 56 26 T4 3E 52 49 51 Yes Na 37 63 29 ll 44 56 26 74 37 63 49 El For more information aboul the election including howilre city39s precincts voled go to wwwcltucsonaiusclenrsl Walther et al 2002 Ecological Responses to Recent Climate Change Spatial Heterogeneity Phenologx timing frostfree days variability Range Shifts 1 temperature 2 precipitation Waimeretai 2002Fig 1 atitude and altitude Degree C per decade Spatial heterogeneity Percent change in precipitation Walther et al 2002 Fig 1 Walther et al 2002 Fig 3 Walther et al 2002 Ecological Responses to Recent Climate Change 120 25 W 110 Switzerland 26 Plant structure 100 animal community 90 Bleaching w Antarctic 9 8 10 E 60 m 2 Recruitment 5 Trophic interactions Synergistic Effects I I I I I I I I I SDCP Chapter 9 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 200 Year Ecological Footprint Counlry Per Capile Ecolagical Foolprlm Heclares uf land per person 0 Y e mm nnmmu UHHed Slates TE 9 me Nelnerlands 5 5 lndle 1 ha 247 acres Country Total Eeolngical Footprint Hectares Urllied States 3 whoquot hectares The Nelllellands 94 mllllon hectares We lbrllren hectares Figure 15 Relatlve eenloglcal foolpnms or me Ulllted Slalas lne Nemerr lands and lnrlla An eeelaglnel loolprrnlre lne amount of land needed la pro duce lne resources needed by an average person n a coumryr ll would take lne land area el about lnree planet earths lI all me wol39ld39s 6 2 bllllen people consumed lne same amnunl nl resources as is consumed by lne 288 lnrllron people m lhe Urnled States Mrller 2003 Ecological Footprint Def Number of productive acres fishing grounds forests agricultural fields needed to maintain a given lifestyle Driving roads vehicles fuel etc Housing land and resources for construction Food land transport inputs trophic level Other goods and services US citizens use 24 acresperson on average Canadians 17 Italians 9 Pakistanis 2 As of 2002 planet has about 45 acresperson Sustainability 1 acre 0405 hectare Ecological Footprint ecological footprint quiz 03 cunMuyr aM ml How many planets needed at 45 acresperson to live like the mean ECOL406R506R student mean45 AVERAGE ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT IN USA IS 24 ACRE PER PERSON WORLDWIDE THERE EXISI39 45 BIOLOGICALLY PRODUCTIVE ACRES PER PERSON Ecological Footprint The big choices seem to matter the most transportation food unprocessed local trophic level housing reproduction Recycling etc important but not as big an impact Paper or Plastic Bring your own Four Spikes 1 Consumption 2 Human Population Growth 3 Extinctions 4 Global Change What should we do Student Presentation Assignment for 17 Nov LESS is MORE How do we reduce ecological footprint reduce consumption and fight global warming Please be as speci c as possible and cite more than your opinion Each group will have 15 minutes suggest 12 plus 3 min for questions 1 PERSONAL Amy Tendick Galia Bobman Aurora FabryWood Erica Sontz Justin Dodds 2 FRIENDS AND FAMILY Ben Joslin Andrea Vasquez Bridget Barker Louise Misztal Meghan Jarvie 3 COMMUNITY Christopher Deegan Michael Gilliland JD Friedrichs Ginny Newsome Lauren Merin Jenna Ramsey 4 COUNTRY AND WORLD Dana Backer Cori Carveth Sarah Hartwell Linh Nguyen Maeveen Behan Leonides Corral NYTimes 04 Nov 2003 Please read to inform your group presentation Link on course Website As Earth Warms The Hottest Issue Is Energy END
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