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CJ 302 Research Methods Chapter 1 Notes

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by: Jason DeHaven

CJ 302 Research Methods Chapter 1 Notes CJ 302-202

Marketplace > Marshall University > Science > CJ 302-202 > CJ 302 Research Methods Chapter 1 Notes
Jason DeHaven
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About this Document

These notes cover what will potentially be on our next exam, and shows the literature review process.
Research Method
Dr. Flesher
Class Notes
Criminal Justice, Literature review, research methods
25 ?




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"Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class."
Forrest Crist

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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jason DeHaven on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 302-202 at Marshall University taught by Dr. Flesher in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Research Method in Science at Marshall University.

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Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.

-Forrest Crist


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Date Created: 01/26/16
Jason DeHaven 1/18/2016 Research Methods Outline Chapter 1 Two Realities: Experimental reality: the things we know from direct experience. Agreement reality: the things we consider real because we’ve been told they’re real, and Everyone else seems to agree that they are real. To illustrate the difference consider preventive police patrol. The term preventive implies that Police when police patrol their assigned bats they prevent crime. However, they don’t prevent all crime but it is a commonsense belief that they do prevent crime. Traditional beliefs about patrol effectiveness and other routine practices are examples of agreement reality, a “reality” that a number of people still embrace In contrast the research projects that practice represents experiential reality. These studies are examples of empirical research. Empirical research: the production of knowledge based on experience or observation. This book focuses on criminal justice methodology – how social scientific methods can be used to better understand crime and criminal justice policy. Personal Human Inquiry: First we recognize the future circumstances are somehow caused or conditioned by present Ones. Second, we recognize such patterns of cause and effect are probabilistic in nature: the effects occur more often when the causes occur more often when the causes occur then when the causes are absent. Two important sources of agreement reality are traditional and authority. Tradition: each of us is born into or inherits a culture made up in part of firmly accepted knowledge about the workings of the world and the values that guide our participation in it. Tradition has some clear advantages for human inquiry. By accepting what everybody knows, we are spared the overwhelming task of starting from scratch in our search for regularities and understanding. Authority: New knowledge appears every day, throughout life we learn about new discoveries and understandings from others. However, our acceptance of this knowledge usually depends on the status of who discovered it. Like tradition, authority can help and hinder human inquiry. Inquiry is also hindered when we depend on the authority of experts speaking outside their realm of experience. Errors in Personal Human Inquiry: People stumble when they try to learn for themselves at times. Inaccurate Observation: Keystone of inquiry is observation, but we tend to not observe what right in-front of us is or observe things mistakenly that aren’t so. Overgeneralization: When we look at information we tend to think it simply implies to the overall simplest outcome The replication of Inquiry provides another safe guard. Which means repeating a study to see whether similar results are obtained each time. Selective Observation: Once we observe a conclusion to a fact we tend to look towards future outcomes rather than seeing if we missed something important. Illogical Reasoning: People have various ways of handling observations that contradict their judgements about the way things are. Gambler’s fallacy: a consistent run of good or bad luck is presumed to foreshadow its opposite. This illogic sounds like a good argument but has no facts to back it up that are logical. Ideology and Politics: Crime is an important social problem and a great deal of controversy surrounds policies for dealing with crime. For example many people feel strongly for or against the death policy. Purposes of Research: Exploration, Description, Explanation, Application Exploration: research in criminal justice conducted to explore a specific problem. An exploratory project might collect data on a measure to establish a baseline in which future changes will be compared. Description: In descriptive research, a researcher or public official observes and then describes what was observed. Criminal justice observation and description, methods grounded in the social sciences, tend to be more accurate than the casual observations people may make about how much crime there is or how violent teenagers are today. Can be used to promote organizations or consider more in depth research. Explanation: Criminal justice research is also used to explain things. Explaining why people do something vs why other people do not is an example of explanatory research. Application: Applied research stems from a need for facts and findings with specific policy implications. Often used to evaluate the effects of specific criminal justice programs. How to Design a Research Project: First, Interest-Idea-theory- New Program Second, conceptualization - Choice of research method – Population and sampling (optional)Third, Operationalization Third, Observation Fourth, Analysis Fifth Application Page 13 Research process: first you want to read something about your issue or interest. Then you want to see what your objective is, and if the research follow toward your research objective. Conceptualization: If you are going to study student concerns about violent crime, you must first specify what you mean by concern about sexual assault. This phrase can mean different things to different people. So you need to specify what you are going to study so there is no confusion. Choices of research methods: Surveys: appropriate for studying both general concern and fear of personal sexual assault victimization. You could interview a student directly or ask them to fill out a questionnaire. Operationalization: refers to the concrete steps used to measure specific concepts. You might operationalize concern with the question “How worried are you about the risk of being sexually attacked while on campus or at college-related social events?” this could be followed by the answers worried and not worried. Population and Sampling: When you are not able to everyone in a particular group you take it down into certain amounts of subjects to study. Observations: After deciding whom and what to study you are ready to make observations to gather empirical data Analysis: we manipulate the collected data for purpose of drawing conclusions that reflect on the interest, ideas, and theories that initiated the inquiry. Application: use the research conducted and the conclusions reached to show results through a webpage or oral presentation with graphs and charts Think about research problems: How do you figure out what you are interested in understanding? Advices to begin with your own interests and experiences to figure out a question Reviewing Literature Research should be seen as an extensions of what has previously been learned. -tells you what’s known and not known Use keyword when you search General Strategies: Doing a literature review is basically a process of accumulating, sorting through, and synthesizing information. -Getting Started: start with a book or article that deals with your topic and expand from there. Base your research on your source document. You pick it down in several pieces seeing all the information it goes to. -Being Selective: sources like Google Scholar offer a built in quality control by limiting your search to academic journals and other publications. Go to college or University Libraries. CRAAP TEST C- Currency: Information Timeless R- Relevance: Does the information apply to your specific topic A, Authority: The source of the information A, Accuracy: Is the information based on fact or opinion? P- Purpose: Why does the information exist? Why is it presented? How to read Scholarly Research: Most journals start with an abstract which tells you the purpose of the research, the methods used, and the major findings. After reading the abstract you may go to the summary of the article or the conclusions. Next skim the article noting the section headings and the tables or graphs. After that step you should be somewhat familiarized with the topic of the article, and if you read the whole thing you will be able to tell better on where it is going. Mark passages you might want to quote later. In the end you could find someone to explain it to you. The research proposal: Elements Problems or Objective: what do you want to study? Why is it worth studying? Literature Review: Review what others have said about your topic. Research questions: what questions will your research answer? What new information do you expect to find? Subject for Study: Whom or what will you study in order to collect data? Identify the subjects in terms then find who you are going to get to accomplish your research. Will you need a consent form due to humans being in contact? Measurement: What are the key variables in your study? How will you define and measure them? Data Collection Methods: Surveys, undertake field research, focus on the reanalysis of data collected by others? Analysis: briefly describe the kind of analysis you plan to conduct. Spell out the purpose and logic of your analysis. Are you interested in precise description? Reference: Be sure to include all sources you included in your article Schedule: You need to be organized so things don’t get jumbled. Budget: be sure to plan ahead so you have enough money for your research. Literature Review Sample Structure (Interest) What Is your question? -Abstract (100-112 word summary on what your research is about) -Intro -Theoretical Framework- theory (to find theory you make the literature review) -Literature Review (Part for what you know, and what you want to know or find out) (Main Topic) (Subtopics) Use your keywords what do you know (Main Topic) (Subtopic) Use your keywords what do you know (Place to find good articles) Google Scholar- related, cited (Rule for use of article if its good or not) Article- abstract CRAAP; 2) read; 3: references; 4) read summary/ skim 5) google author (Keywords) Find everything like prostitution survey, male, reasons, When making a literature review you should ask yourself what you have a question about. What do you know, and what is your question afterwards going to be of what you do not know?


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