CBIO Week 3 notes
CBIO Week 3 notes CBIO2210
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elise Weidner on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CBIO2210 at University of Georgia taught by Rob Nichols in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Anatomy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
CBIO2210 Class notes 1/26/16 Fate and Destruction of Erythrocytes (topic we ended with on last notes) o 100-120 days life span o Becomes fragile, Hb degenerates, spectrin disintegrates (loses flexibility) These proteins can’t be repaired or replaced in adult RBCs because they have no nucleus to code for new proteins Get trapped or break because they are brittle and cannot bend around corners May be swallowed by a macrophage(often in spleen) which splits it into water and hemoglobin (look at image above) It then splits hemoglobin into: o globin(the protein which is then split into amino acids) excess amino acids will be dealt with by liver o and heme(the “non-protein component” of hemoglobin which has iron in it) iron from hemes gets transported by transferrin(a plasma protein) the iron cannot travel on its own because it can pull oxygen away, the body makes sure something escorts it it is usually in RBCs or stored if it is free it is usually filtered by kidney biliverdin (which is not easily recyclable and comes from the heme) is a greenish color is converted to bilirubin (a dark yellowish); both of these must be taken from the blood liver packages the bilirubin into bile and dumps it into small intestine (a buildup of this can cause jaundice (yellowing of eyes and nails)) stercobilin causes feces to be brown is the result of bacteria on bilirubin If liver is broken, these three things can happen: Liver cancer Sclerosis Hepatitis Regulation of Erythropoiesis Erythrocyte Disorders o Too few RBCs Called anemia (decreased O2-carrying capacity of the blood) Symptoms: fatigue, headache, shaky 3 types of anemia Insufficient RBC count (usually more common) o Hemorrhagic (acute or chronic) Acute: Have gone through a lot of bleeding Chronic: usually happens after surgery(slow or hidden bleed) o Hemolytic Due to RBC rupturing Side effect of bacterial infections (like strep) o Aplastic No new cells being formed because bone marrow not going through mitosis fast enough to keep up with demand Usually a result of us giving chemo Low Hb content of RBCs (two most common) o Fe-deficiency(most common) Caused by excess iron loss or not enough produced More common in females During pregnancy and menstruation o Pernicious (intrinsic factor) Common in elderly due to B12 deficiency As we age our stomach cells produce intrinsic factor which helps absorb iron from food into blood along with B12 Abnormal Hb o Thalassemia Mostly in Italian and Greek people o Sickle-cell anemia Blood cells change shape and they get stuck together Cells lose their flexibility Usually caused during a low oxygen incident (could be exercise) Common in Sub Sahara areas o Too many RBCs Called polycythemia 2 kinds: o Polycythemia vera (true kind): Caused by bone marrow tumor Can cause a little jaundice o Secondary polycythemia (temporary)(secondary means “as a result of something else”) Low atmospheric O2 or low atmospheric pressures (high altitudes) Being in Colorado for a few weeks will increase RBC count and then if return to normal atmosphere have natural polycythemia but it goes away Abnormal increase in EPO blood doping athletes take own blood and put it in blood bank and then day before the race they run it back through their body Erythrocytes are #1 contributor to viscosity/thickness of blood This can be a bad thing if it is too much because the heart has to work much harder to circulate the thick blood Balance depends on: As EPO levels go up, bone marrow stimulates erythropoiesis Erythropoiesis: dietary requirements o Amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates (required for all cells) o Iron (where can it be found) 65% of iron in Hb (also in liver, spleen and bone marrow) In cells the iron is bound to ferritin and/or hemosiderin In plasma bound to transferrin Average daily Fe losses: (don’t need to memorize numbers, just know how little you lose because it is recycled so much by the body) 1.7 mg for females 0.9 mg for males o B12 and folic acid- needed for DNA synthesis, cell division, and iron absorption (by the small intestine) Bone marrow is highly mitotic so it needs B12
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