BSC 116: Single Celled Eukaryotes-The Protists
BSC 116: Single Celled Eukaryotes-The Protists BSC 116
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Paola Araque on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 116 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Cherry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Principles Biology II in Art at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
SingleCelled Eukarvotes the Protists o Protists a diverse group of eukaryotes Eukaryotes membrane bound organelles and nucleus most are single celled unicellular diverse metabolic adaptations O O O photoautotrophs use light energy to fix inorganic C02 chemoheterotrophs get C and energy from organic compounds mixotrophs capable of both 0 Eukaryotes arose through endosym biosis relationship between two species in which one lives inside the other evidence for endosymbiosis O O inner membranes of organelles homologous to prokaryotes organelles retain portions of circular ancestral prokaryotic chromosome organelles retain cellular machinery to transcribe and translate DNA to proteins Ancestral prokaryoteNucleusNuclear envelope amp ER Host engulfed heterotrophic aerobic prokaryote alpha proteobacterium Engulfed bacterium gt mitochondria in ancestral heterotrophic eukaryote Host engulfed a photoautotrophic prokaryote gt chloroplasts in ancestral photosynthetic eukaryote o Plastid evolution primary and secondary endosymbiosis Primary endosym biosis O O O heterotrophic eukaryote acquires photosynthetic cyanobacterium that then evolved into plastids which gave rise to two lineages green and red algae Secondary endosymbiosis I green or red algae engulfed by heterotrophic eukaryote becoming endoymbionts themselves and leading to new groups of algae 0 gives rise to dinoflagellates stramenopiles red 0 gives rise to euglenidschlorarachniophytes green Evidence I Plastids surrounded by two membranes homologous to the outer and inner membranes of cyanobacteria I Nucleomorph remnant of engulfed cell s nucleus retains cellular machinery to transcribe DNA 0 Four main lineages Excavata SAR stramenophiles alveolates rhizarians Archaeplastida Unikonta groups often composed of heterogeneous taxa 0000 same traits appear repeatedly in different groups Excavata o composed primarily of Diplomonads Parabasalids Euglenozoans 0 reduced mitochondria obligate or facultative anaerobes mostly parasitic 0 Both the diplomonads and parabasalids have the reduced mitochondria in common 0 Euglenozoans have flagella with spiral or crystalline rod inside mostly free living mostly parasitic I eg Euglena Trypanosoma SAR clade o composed of Stramenopiles Alveolates Rhizarians o Stramenopiles have a unique flagellum structure smooth and hairy I Diatoms Golden algae Brown algae o Alveolates have the alveoli membrane enclosed sac beneath plasms and membrane within the cells I Dinoflagellates Apicomplexans Ciliates o Rhizarians move by pseudopodia I Forams Cercozoans Radiolarians Archaeplastida o composed of Red algae Green algae Land plants 0 Red algae mostly multicellular accessory pigments that make them look red 0 Green algae plant like chloroplasts I chlorophytes unicellular colonial and multicellular I charophyceans closest relative of land plants Unikonta o Amoebozoans locomotion via lobe or tubelike pseudopodia slime mods and other am oebas I slime molds tubulinids entamoebas o Opisthokonts unicellular and multicellular heterotrophic protists fungi animals Alternation of generations alternation of multicellular haplid n and diploid 2n forms 0 Found in groups that have evolved multicellularity I Stramenopiles brown and algae I Archaeplastida green and red algae I Unikonts slime molds Ecological Roles of Protists o 25 of Earth s primary production by photosynthetic protists 0 part of important mutualisms I photosynthetic dinoflagellates that live in tissues of coral and other organisms I parabasalids sym bionts in termite guts that break down cellulose 0 Types of Symbioses I mutualism I commensalism 0 I parasitism o Ecological Roles of Protists Pathogens o Giarida diplomonad causes giardiasisfood poisoning o Trypanosoma Euglenozoan causes African Sleeping Sickness I spread by tsetse flies I lives in blood and other fluids 0 Plasmodium apicomplexa causes malaria I spread by mosquitoes I lives in blood cells
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