Cognitive Neuroscience Week 1 Notes
Cognitive Neuroscience Week 1 Notes Psyc 149
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Denice Arnold on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 149 at University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Pustina in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Neuroscience in Psychlogy at University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Cog Neuro Chapter 1 Thursday, January 14, 2016 8:23 PM Chapter 1 A Brief History of Cognitive Neuroscience (p. 3 - 19) The Brain Story As civilization developed to the point where day-to-day survival did not occupy every hour of every day, people began spending time theorizing about human motivations Phrenology- idea that character could be divined through palpating the skull Aggregate field theory - notion that the whole brain participated in behavior Opposite of localization Paul Broca and his patient Tan (Leborgne), perhaps the most famous neurological case in history Tan had aphasia, where he could understand language, but could only say "tan" Region of lesion came to be known as Broca's area, an area localized for language Carl Wernicke had a patient who had a lesion in a more posterior region of the left hemisphere Wernicke's area is localized for comprehension Korbinian Brodmann characterized the cortex into 52 distinct regions Ex: Brodmann's area 17 is primary visual cortex Ramon y Cajal was responsiblefor the neurondoctrine,which stated that the nervous system is made up of individual,distinct cells called neurons Also recognized unidirectional nature of the axon (from dendrites to axonal tip) Instrumentsof Neuroscience Electroencephalograph -recorded a brain's electrical currents Measuringbloodflow in the brain - idea that blood flow to specific regions of the brain indicated higher levels of metabolic activity Computerized AxialTomography (CAT scans) - using multiple two dimensional X-rays to reconstruct a three dimensional image of the brain Positron EmissionTomography (PET scan) - noninvasivesectioning technique that provided information about functionality of brain parts Magnetic ResonanceImaging (MRI) - measured changes in blood volume of a human brain to produce anatomical images as well as insightinto function (if combined with physiologyinfo) FunctionalMagnetic ResonanceImaging (fMRI) - measured blood oxygen levels in the brain
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