ASCI 122 Week #! Reading Notes
ASCI 122 Week #! Reading Notes ASCI 123
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katarina Fielding on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASCI 123 at University of Vermont taught by Julia Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Animals in Social Welfare in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Vermont.
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ASCI 122: FRASER READINGS CHAPTERS 1-3 CHAPTER #1- ANIMALS AND MORAL CONCERN th Late 20 century was the first time that science had been called upon to clarify the issues and guide the resulting reforms First well recorded debate on the proper treatment of animals occurred in th Greece beginning the 6 century BC In ancient Greece, horses were used for transportation, racing, warfare and oxen for tilling land,. Sheep raised for wool as well as for milk and cheese along with cattle and goats. Meat from these species as well as pigs was eaten. Animal slaughtering was done for religious sacrifices and then the carcasses were fed on Dogs were kept as companion animals for people of all classes and were sometimes given funerals or tombstones, also were used for guarding and in warfare Animals a part of scientific research o Aristotle maintained a collection of wild animals as part of reference material of his school in Athens o Held a remarkable amount of information especially about zoology and animal husbandry Pythagoras described a close connection between humans and animals and declared that “wicked as human bloodshed to draw the knife across the throat of the calf” which translated to “Meat is murder” Pythagoreans saw kinship as the key to determining the proper objects of moral concern o Arguments of kinship between humans and animals- we are made from the same elements, we are permeated by the same breath, and animals and humans alike are animated by the same reincarnated souls Pythagoreans also rejected the killing of animals for food or religious sacrifice Theophrastus proposed a concept of kinship between species that has had a much more modern western ring o Noted people who are born from the same ancestors are naturally kin o Humans are also kin to animals because they have the same bodily organs, the same tissues and fluids, and same appetites, emotions, perceptions, and reason Aristotle concluded through his philosophy and natural history had concluded that although humans and animals share many characteristics such as perceptions and emotion, humans alone have the capacity for logos or reason Stoics saw justice as rooted in concept of mutual belonging; no such community of belonging can exist between rational and non-rational beings Stoics saw ethical conclusion that animals fall outside the sphere of human justice and moral concern Epicureans viewed justice as a contract or agreement between different people to avoid causing harm to each other; justice requires a measure of agreement about what constitutes acceptable behavior could not be applied to animals because animals lack powers of reason needed to enter into such a contract Epicurean theory like the Stoic theory denied that the principles of justice apply to animals on the grounds that animals on the grounds that animals are irrational Plutarch produced many anecdotes to argue that animals use reason o People using foxes to test whether it is safe to venture onto ice o Believed animals are more rational than humans When animals meet they are not unduly impressed by another’s fine clothing; they follow natural and necessary desires, uncontaminated by a lust for wealth; they mate only in proper season and in a natural manner; their sexual appetites are awakened by the natural odors of the body, not by artificial ointments and perfumes; they eat simple food that is easily obtained, thus avoiding the indigestion the befalls people from an excessive quantity and variety of foods Fourth century BC, Heraclides had concluded that meat eating must be natural for humans because the practice has been universal since the invention of fire Plutarch in opposition to Heraclides stated that nature had obviously not equipped us to eat meat because we find meat disagreeable unless we transform it by cooking and adding spices Theophrastus said that if we avoiding harming animals, then logically we should also avoid harming plants Porphyry argued that the purity and self-discipline of a vegetarian diet is important for those who devote themselves to an intellectual life, but also assembled many arguments to show that animals are rational beings and that killing them for the pleasure of the palate is unjust o Animals lived ordered and rational lives because they mate to produce offspring and cease mating when the female is pregnant Porphyry argued that animals deserve moral consideration because they, like us, have the capacity to ‘feel distress, to be afraid, to be hurt, and therefore be injured’ Plutarch argued that even if we refuse to apply the principles of justice to animals, we should at least be benevolent to them Porphyry based his call for vegetarianism not on human kindness but on the properties of animals themselves- specifically their many similarities to humans Hermarchus anticipated the ecological arguments of modern hunters that we must kill animals or they would become too numerous and bring destruction on themselves and the environment o Porphyry refuted this claim on the grounds that nature is self- regulating and that other species would restore a natural balance if only humans would withdraw Plotinus anticipated modern veganism by refusing medicines made with animal ingredients th th This debate was also replayed in England during the 18 and 19 centuries Philosopher Dix Harwood described how concern for animals developed from the most uncompromising beginnings William Hogarth was an artist whom used engravings to portray his ideas on animal welfare. He was a believer in moral progress and considered that stamping out cruelty to animals was important for improving the moral tone of society o Believed that callousness toward animals creates a spirit of callousness toward people English attitudes toward animals underwent a gradual shift during the 1700s as a part of the general awakening of feelings of pity, kindness and moral sense- which became to be known as the feeling of sensibility Anthony Ashley Cooper- people have an inherent moral sense by which they intuitively recognize justice, generosity and sympathy as good, “to love and be kind is to feel immediate satisfaction and genuine context o Cruelty that he saw in everyday life was a perversion of human nature that needed to be stamped out, viewed cruelty to humans and cruelty to those of another species as products of the same defect of moral character Jeremy Bentham- one of the early champions of the view that we should judge the rightness or wrongness of an action, not by the virtuous intentions from which it springs, or by whether it conforms to established rules, but according to the consequences that flow from it Good acts are those that promote the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of those concerned o Judge the rightness or wrongness of an action by its ‘utility’ in causing good outcomes and came to be known as Utilitarianism o For Bentham, good meant happiness and evil meant pain and suffering o Bentham proposed the question: not “Can they reason?, nor Can they talk? but, Can they suffer?” Shaftesbury and Bentham had profound implications for the proper treatment of animals, and these became a common theme in works of moral philosophy during the 1700s William Wollaston’s Religion of Nature Delineated proposed that animals are less sensitive than human beings because they, living only in the present, lack the reflection on the past and future that plays so great a role in subjective lives of people; yet where physical pain is involved, we ought to take the greatest care not to cause needless anguish to animals Henry St. John Bolingbroke claimed that animals behavior is governed only by instinct when their intelligence and ours obviously share important elements Reverend Tomas Young- his ideas are key points of animal welfare reforms today o Pointed out the importance of understanding sentience and sensitivity to pain in animals and of accommodating the needs of animals in practical ways o Commented on the friendship that arises between people and animals and the duties implied by those relationships o His approach to animal experimentation called for scientists to not abandon all use of animals in research but to minimize animal suffering, avoid duplication of experiments, and to use animals only in pursuit of ‘some great and public good We can see that proper treatment of animals is an ancient ethical dilemma that has resurfaced in different cultures and different times and in each occasion people have approached it in a manner distinctive of their society In classical times, Greeks treated it with their characteristic mixture of logic and philosophical theory In England in the 18 and 19 centuries, it was approached with that culture’s characteristic mix of moralizing, sermon-writing and legislative reform, aided by the authority of the church and the class system Today many of the ideas from both time periods have returned o Speculation about the mental powers of animals, philosophical debate about whether the principles of justice should apply to other species, the necessity of hunting, the benefit of a vegetarian diet and many more New cultural context has been added: respect for authority of science and belief that scientific research can help resolve the difficult issues of the day In Greece the central issue of the debate was justice: whether the principles of justice apply to animals and if so how justice demands that we should treat them In the English Enlightenment, the central concern had to do more with human virtue and moral progress; wanted to improve the moral tone of society, and they saw eliminating cruelty to animals as one avenue for achieving this goal In today’s debate, justice and cruelty are still present however the central issue has shifted towards emphasizing the quality of life of the animals themselves: the animals should be happy and healthy, that they should not suffer unnecessary pain, that they should not be put in situations that are so unnatural as to prevent them from having a good life o Become captured under the term animal welfare and the animal ethics debate of the 20 century was specifically to investigate the ‘welfare’ or ‘well-being’ or ‘quality of life’ of animals as a fundamental component of society’s attempts to resolve questions about how animals ought to be treated Scientific approach of evaluating welfare of animals is one approach, but not the only approach, that people have used when engaging in social debate about the proper treatment of animals Study of animal welfare developed in response to certain kinds of problems, specifically ethical problems and scientists must keep the ethical application of their work visible, at least out of the corner of their eye when scientists study animal welfare The scientific study of animal welfare developed in a particular historical and cultural context characterized by certain historically and culturally conditioned beliefs and values CHAPTER #2- ANIMALS IN THE HUMAN MIND We will look briefly at some different traditional beliefs about the nature of animals and how these ‘factual beliefs (about what animals are like) have influenced ethical beliefs (about how animals should be treated) Also will consider how our beliefs about animals have been reshaped by modern science and the ethical implications of the evolving scientific understanding Two Bible creation stories o First story was that humans were created after the animals and were to serve as God’s lieutenants by ruling over the other species o Second story was the God began by creating the first man and fashioning a garden where he could live, wanting the man to have companionship, God created various animals and brought them to him so that the man could give him names. When none of the animals were satisfactory companions, God made the first woman from a part of the man’s body The relationship between humans and animals was much less hierarchical and based more on companionship than authority o Bible based a new view- are we to view animals as our subjects, to be ruled by humans as a king might rule over a nation of people, or are animals out earth born companions and fellow mortals? Jain view of animals, captured in a complex cosmology that sees humans, animals, and the natural world as parts of a continuous and interwoven process of life, death and rebirth Jain taxonomy sees all life forms as falling into five levels which are distinguished by their sensory capacities o Lowest level includes earth, air, microorganisms and plants which possess only sense of touch o Next level includes worms, leeches, oysters, and snails also have sense of taste o third level includes most insects and spiders adds the sense of smell o fourth level which includes butterflies, flies and bees the ability to see o highest level includes reptiles, birds, mammals and humans have all 4 senses plus the ability to hear all life forms have value but the more complex beings have more value than the simplest o humans remain the highest of all and a virtuous animal may be rewarded by being reborn in human form and only from human form can one achieve the ultimate state of spiritual liberation o Jain faith seeks to uphold and respect animals as being fundamentally in reality not different from ourselves Innu people- in the 1930s, anthropologists recorded and photographed to elaborate lengths to which the Innu went in order to not offend the animals had killed o most noble of their prey was the bear and the slain bear was referred to as the ‘Great Food’; unmarried woman were not allows to look upon the bear for fear of insulting him; tail must not be cut off, right arm must not be severed from the paw, the meat must not be eaten outdoors and only the oldest man in the community ould eat the right arm and the skull o the practice are said to reflect reverence of animals o their customs showed a clear recognition that animals are ethically significant beings and that harms done to them are important enough to require appropriate expressions of gratitude and respect o Innu people depended utterly on animals for their own survival and in their belief system successful hunting required the cooperation of an animal who would allow itself to be killed to the Jains, taking care not to harm other beings is a key virtue; devout Jains will sweep a path in front of themselves to avoid stepping on ants and other small creatures; they will not eat outdoors so as not to consume flying insects by accident; may even breathe through a mask and filter their water before they drink it o their worldviews make it impossible for devout Jains to be farmers who, in tilling the soil, would harm countless creatures ranging from burrowing rodents and ground-nesting birds to the tiny soil organisms that play a lesser but still significant role in the Jain world in Biblical terms, animals had to be rested in green pastures and led beside still waters; they also had to be defended when in danger and nursed back to health when injured the Innus, Jains, and the Bibilical herders all reveal that human cultures have what we might call an “animal mythology” o An animal mythology in the sense of a set of fundamental culture, and which serve as the maps by which cultures navigate through time o Animal mythology involves various elements Factual beliefs about the nature of animals and their historical relationship to people Correlated set of evaluative and ethical beliefs about the importance of animals and appropriate conduct towards them If the factual beliefs evolve and change, the evaluative and ethical beliefs are likely to change as well In western culture, the most revered animal is the dog o They appear in countless stories and works of art, both traditional and contemporary, as the chief animal companion and ‘best friend’ of humans o Western practices go along with the positive portrayal of dogs: they are treated as members of human families, given distinctive names, rescued from abuse by public institutions, and totally exempted from slaughter for human food In western history, wolf was the arch-enemy of humans o Wolves connive to eat children, the elderly and the domestic animals that are cared for by humans, and the death of a wolf, no matter how gruesome, is invariably a source of satisfaction Farm animals in western culture are a source of great interest and sometimes sympathy, pride and friendship, and they are essential elements of the rural landscape; seen as worthy of care, and bear none of the negative loading associated with wolves; valued more for their usefulness than for their loyalty, intelligence or individuality Western culture does have an animal mythology which is captured in its stories and art, and which has a pervasive influence on human behavior Dix Harwood- one body of thought was that humans and animals ‘are very much alike, with the same emotions and similar mental processes’; opposing view is ‘that an unbridged chasm yawns between the human race and other species’ St. Francis of Assisi saw a cosmic unity joining humankind and all of nature and addressed birds and animals as his brothers St. Thomas Aquinas saw animals as fundamentally different because humans, unlike animals have immortal souls Rene Descartes claimed that there is a difference between humans and animals in that humans have a unique capacity for rational thought which is his view of the essence of human life; saw animals as machine-like entities acting without thought or feeling Voltaire disagreed with Descartes and stated ‘ what a pitiful, what a sorry thing to have said that animals are machines bereft of understanding and feeling’ and asked ‘…has nature arranged all the means of feeling in this animal, so that it may not feel?’ Immanuel Kant- German Enlightenment- believed we should treat our fellow humans not as means to our ends but are ends in themselves, whereas animals are not self-conscious and are there merely as a means to an end. The end is man.’ Poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe proposed that “each animal is an end in itself’ Over the centuries, the beliefs and perceptions that supported the view of humans as unique have gradually been chipped away First perception to fall was that humans and animals differ fundamentally in appearance o Through public autopsies and dissection came known that humans are built on the same anatomical template as the other vertebrate animals o In 1734, English poet Alexander Pope used the common metaphor of the ‘Great Chain of Being” to propose that all life is interconnected Carl Linnaeus- could not find any generic character to distinguish between man and ape By the end of the 1700s, the discussion had shifted from metaphysical claims about the interconnectedness of life, to the more concrete idea that the anatomical similarities might be due to a common evolutionary ancestry o Early evolutionists imagined a process of gradual transformation whereby characteristics acquired by on animal during its life are somehow passed on to its offspring o In 1850s Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace proposed natural selection By late 1800s perception that humans possess a unique physical form had been long abandoned, and the seeds had been sown for a belief in a common origin o Instead of ‘Great Chain of Being’, evolutionists saw a type of family tree where in Homo sapiens counted as one species among countless others. Most closely related to a minor group of primates with opposing thumbs and large brains, and sharing its more distant ancestry with all the animal kingdom Darwin- The Expression of the Emotions in Animals and Man- proposed that many species share similar emotional experiences- fear, pain, pleasure, affection, anger and often express them in similar ways Darwin’s contemporary George Romanes amassed a large body of evidence showing the various intellectual powers of animals arranged from mollusks, insects, and other invertebrates through reptiles, fish, birds, mammals, and as the final chapter, monkeys, apes and baboons. Primatologist Robert Yerkes did work with a captive gorilla Congo who noticed that Congo’s behavior in trying to use a stick or stack wooden blocks in order to get food often failed to follow the pattern one would expect if she learned by trial and error, instead Congo seemed to solve a problem more by observation, reflection and insight Jane Goodall- used methods close to cultural anthropology to study animals more as persons with individuality, unique life histories, and complex social and mental lives All of this scientific activity has changed human perception of animals to the point that some species, at least, are now widely seen as experiencing rich mental and emotional lives Shrinking of human-animal divide was accompanied by a growing concern for animals that rivalled, and then arguably surpassed, what had been seen in some European countries a century earlier, during the first great wave of animal protectionism Change from horses to automobiles and rural to urban living, most people experienced animals as companions and family members rather than in utilitarian roles as providers of transportation or food Media has portrayed animals as fascinating natural beings and sometimes as sympathetic humanized ones Western perceptions of animals, which have always been pulled between two poles of emphasizing our similarities with other species and emphasizing our similarities with other species and emphasizing our differences Humans and other species were seen as sharing a common anatomical form, a common evolutionary ancestry and, in the case of some species, a complex mental and emotional life People directed more attention and sympathy towards animals, and this set the stage for a remarkable reshaping of ethical beliefs about how animals should be treated The relationship between science and popular culture is a rich and complex one: that science influences popular beliefs and values, and that these in turn influence science CHAPTER #3: A GOOD LIFE FOR ANIMALS Four modes of thought: Pastoralism, Agrarianism, Romanticism, and Industrialism; help shape our current thinking about what kind of life animals ought to live Most traditional is the pastoralist ethic of care derived from the Bible o Bible has often been portrayed as providing a kind of license for unrestrained exploitation of animals and nature o Animals were seen as part of nature tat were created explicitly for man’s benefit and rule and were available for humans to dominate and use as they saw fit o Totalist economy of Hebrew people required that domestic animals be owned, traded and used for human purposes, but at the same time they had to be given appropriate care o They were not seen equal to humans but they were not just mere objects; were viewed as beings that had been created bu God and assigned to people in a relationship called rada or dominion o Listed two elements that guided how people should deal with animals First allowed animals to be used for certain purposes as long as appropriate conventions were observed Domestic animals could be eaten but had to be slaughtered and prepared in a ritually correct manner Could be used for labor but they had to be given a customary day of rest and certain inappropriate muzzling and harnessing was forbidden Second, pastoralist ethic attached great value to the diligent care of animals o Bible’s pastoralist ethic of legitimate use combined with diligent care has remained influential as a moral idea long after pastoralist herding has ceased being the dominant form of animal production in the West o Good life for animals- diligent and skillful care of animals by their human keepers Agrarian agriculture became linked to the view that living close to the land brings out the best in humankind o Was not defined principally in terms of human care of animals, yet animals were still and integral part of both the perception and reality of agrarian life o Remained a powerful moral idea long after it ceased to be the dominant mode; for agricultural production and has influenced people’s views on animals in least two ways First agrarian worldview put rural family living and producing fppd from their own land on a moral pedestal Raising and killing of animals was seen as an acceptable activity as long as it is carried out within the context of family farming Second the agrarian worldview sees animals on the traditional farm as living a goof life Not a life of ease or pleasure or a life devoid of pain struggle but a life that is wholesome because it is lived in harmony with the cycles of nature and rural life Romantics valued ordinary life: peasants living in a humble cottage were as worthy a subject-matter as wealthy patrons dressed in their finery, and a country girl leading a cow to the riverside was as deserving of the artist’s attention as St. Mary being visited by an angel o Attached a great value to nature and very emotion focused o With emphasis on feeling, human empathy for animals and friendship with animals were portrayed as positive and enriching o Close and sympathetic attention to animals seen in the romantic movement no doubt had the effect of making people see animals as more worthy of moral concern o Heralded a view of animal quite different than before Animals are not living possessions to which we owe proper pastoralist care, nor integral elements of a wholesome agrarian life; rather animals are fellow beings possessing individuality, emotional and experiential lives, the capacity for friendship with each other and with humans, and at the same time possessing a distinct non-human nature that causes us to respect and admire them as different kinds of beings that they are o Mode of though which values the natural and simple which focuses on experiential and emotional life, and which sees animals and nature as enriching and inherently valuable World of commerce and industry clearly involved a worldview and value system of its own and has been highly influential on western thought o Industrial worldview looked forward to a Golden Age when science technology and commerce would bring about a better life o Any return from a life of technology to one of nature would be simply regressive o Key element of the industrial worldview was progress Pattern of change exists in the history of mankind and consists of irreversible changes in one general direction only and the direction is toward improvement o Science played a key role in progress and change seemed to inevitably involve improvement Progress was much more than must a way to describe the course of history and was also seen as a law of the social world To stand in the way of progress is not merely unwise but ridiculous o Second key element of Industrial viewpoint is productivity Pastoralist worldview captured in the Bible, peple regarded aniamls as wwards entrusted to humans for care, but at the same time as legitimate possessions which people are entitled to use in appropriate ways In Agrarianism, animals are not so much wards as fellow actors in the age old drama of rural life; good life for animals is a life that is wholesome because it is lived in harmony with nature and the cycles of rural living Romanticism made people view animals as fellow beings, capable (like humans) of suffering, and all too often degraded by the constraints and artificiality of modern human society; a good life is a free life lived closed to nature In industrialism, animals are cast a role roughly analogous to that of workers in efficient production systems; a healthy animal is one whose need are well met and will be a productive animal; the way to increase health and productivity in an animal is through the rational application of science and technology