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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Apollo12 on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2101 at University of Georgia taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Psy of Adjustment in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Psychobabble – Used to describe the “hip” but hopefully vague language in many selfhelp books. Narcissism – A personality trait marked by an inflated sense of importance, a need for attention and admiration, a sense of entitlement, and a tendency to exploit others. Psychology – The science that studies the behavior and the physiological and mental processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems. Behavior – Any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism. Clinical Psychology – The branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders. Adjustment – Refers to the psychological processes through which people manage or cope with the demands and challenges of everyday life. Empiricism – The premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation. The two main types of research methods in psychology are experimental and correlational. Experiment – A research method in which the investigator manipulates one (independent) variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second (dependent) variable as a result. Independent Variable – A condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable. Dependent Variable – The variable that is thought to be affected by the manipulations of the independent variable. The Experimental Group – Consists of the subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable. The Control Group – Consists of similar subjects (as the exper. group) who don’t receive the special treatment given to the experimental group. Correlation – Exists when two variables are related to each other. Correlation Coefficient – A numerical index of the degree of relationship that exists between two variables. Positive Correlation – Indicates that two variables covary in the same direction, meaning high scores on variable x are associated with high scores on variable y and low scores on variable x are associated with low scores on variable y. Negative Correlation – Indicates that two variables covary in the opposite direction, meaning high scores on variable x are associated with low scores on variable y, however those that score low on variable x tend to score high on variable y. Naturalistic Observation – A researcher engages in careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects. Case Study – An indepth investigation of an individual subject. Surveys – Structured questionnaires designed to solicit information about specific aspects of participants’ behavior. Subjective WellBeing – An individual’s personal assessments of their overall happiness or life satisfaction. Affective Forecasting – Efforts to predict one’s emotional reactions to future events. Hedonic Adaptation – Occurs when the mental scale that people use to judge the pleasantness unpleasantness of their experiences shifts so that their neutral point, or baseline for comparison, is changed. Retrieval Practice – Read a section of text and then set it aside and try to recall as much information as possible; then review the material again and repeat the recall effort. Overlearning – Continued rehearsal of material after you have first appeared to master it. Mnemonic Devices – Strategies for enhancing memory, designed to make abstract material more meaningful. Acrostics – Phrases (or poems) in which the first letter of each word (or line) functions as a cue to help you recall the abstract words that begin with the same letter. Acronym – A word formed out of the first letters of a series of words (variation of acrostics). The Link Method – Involves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together. The Method of Loci – Involves taking an imaginary walk along a familiar path where you have associated items you want to remember with certain locations. Stress – Any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one’s well being and hereby tax one’s coping abilities. 1/3 of Americans reported “living with extreme stress”. Increased over past 5 years. Money, work, and the economy were the top three reported causes of stress. Stressful events can have a cumulative or additive impact (stress can add up). Resilience and optimism can buffer the distressing effects of daily hassles. Primary Appraisal – An initial evaluation of whether an event is (1) irrelevant to you. (2) relevant but not threatening, or (3) stressful. Secondary Appraisal – An evaluation of your coping resources and options for dealing with stress. Ambient Stress – Type of stress that consists of chronic environmental conditions that, although not urgent, are negatively valued and place adaptive demands on people. Noise and crowding are the only environmental factors related to stress. Acculturation – Changing to adapt to a new culture. Acute Stressors – Threatening events that have a relatively short duration and a clear end point. Chronic Stressors – Threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no readily apparent time limit. Robert Sapolsky – A leading authority on stress, points out another type of stressor that is unique to humans (anticipatory stressors). Anticipatory Stressors – Upcoming or future events that are perceived to be threatening. Frustration – Occurs in any situation in which the pursuit of some goal is thwarted. Internal Conflict – Type of conflict that occurs when two or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression. ApproachApproach Conflict – Type of conflict when a choice must be made between two attractive goals. AvoidanceAvoidance Conflict – Type of conflict when a choice must be made between two unattractive goals. ApproachAvoidance Conflict – Type of conflict when a choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects. Vacillation – Often produced by approachavoidance conflict when people go back and forth, beset by indecision, creating stress. Life Changes – Any noticeable alterations in one’s living circumstances that require readjustment and may represent a key type of stress. Change – Disruptions of daily routines, stressful. Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) – Scale developed by Holmes and Rahe. It is designed to measure the changerelated stress in one’s life. Experts argue that the SRRS does not measure change exclusively. Pressure – Involves expectations or demands that one behaves in a certain way. 2 subtypes of pressure: The pressure to (1) perform and the pressure to (2) conform. Weiten created a scale to measure pressure as a form of life stress. 3 levels to analyze people’s reactions to stress: (1) emotional responses, (2) physiological responses, (3) behavioral responses. Emotions – Powerful, largely uncontrollable feelings, accompanied by physiological changes. Test Anxiety – Emotional arousal that can hurt performance (in school). Ego Depletion – The concept of testanxious students that get distracted and don’t have the self control to get them back on course. InvertedU Hypothesis – Predicts that task performance should improve with increased emotional arousal, up to a point, after which further increase in arousal become disruptive and performance deteriorates. Optimal Level of Arousal – Uses the invertedu hypothesis. The level of arousal at which performance peaks. It depends in part on the complexity of the task at hand. Walter Cannon – He was a pioneer in stress research (although he didn’t refer to it as stress) with his work on the fightorflight response. The FightorFlight Response – A physiological reaction to threat that mobilizes an organism for attacking or fleeing from an enemy. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) – Body system made up of the nerves that connect to the heart, blood, vessels, smooth muscles, and glands. 2 divisions of ANS: parasympathetic and sympathetic Parasympathetic Division – Division of the ANS that generally conserves bodily resources (ex: slows heart rate, promotes digestion to help the body save and store energy). Sympathetic Division – Division of the ANS. Mediates the fightorflight response. It mobilizes bodily resources for emergencies. Basic neuroendocrine core of stress responses are largely the same for males and females. Hans Selye – A Canadian scientist, first voiced concern about the effects of prolonged physical arousal, and conducted extensive research on stress. The concept of stress was popularized in both scientific and lay circles by Hans Selye. To capture the general pattern all species exhibit when responding to stress, Hans Selye formulated a seminal theory called the general adaptation syndrome. The General Adaptation Syndrome – A model of the body’s stress response, consisting of 3 stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. Created by Hans Selye: Alarm Reaction – Occurs when an organism recognizes the existence of a threat. Stage of Resistance – If stress continues after alarm reaction an organism can progress to this stage of the general adaptation syndrome. During this stage, physiological arousal continues to be higher than normal, although it may level off somewhat as the organism becomes accustomed to the threat. Stage of Exhaustion – If stress continues over a substantial period of time in the stage of resistance of the general adaption syndrome it will continue to this stage. Endocrine System – The body system that the brain sends signals to when you experience stress. This system consists of glands that secrete chemicals (hormones) into the bloodstream. Hypothalamus – The part of the brain that sends signals to the pituitary gland. It also activates the sympathetic division of the ANS. Adrenal Glands (Adrenal Medulla) – The part of the brain that releases large amounts of catecholamines into the bloodstream. Catecholamines – Hormones that radiate throughout the body, producing many important physiological changes. Pituitary Gland – The master gland of the endocrine system. It also secretes the hormone ACTH. Adrenal Cortex – The hormone ACTH stimulates this, it then releases corticosteroids. Corticosteroids – Hormones that play an important role in the response to stress. They stimulate the release of chemicals that help increase your energy and help inhibit tissue inflammation in case of injury. Cortisol – A type of corticosteroid that is often used as a physiological indicator of stress in humans. Chronic Inflammation – Stressinduced, a risk factor for disease, and an indicator of an immune system that is chronically activated. Coping – Refers to active efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands created by stress. Adaptational Outcomes – Working Memory – The type of memory that allows people to juggle information on the spot. Burnout – A syndrome involving physical and emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and a lowered sense of selfefficacy that is attributable to workrelated stress. Exhaustion – Central to burnout (ex: chronic fatigue, weakness, low energy). Cynicism – A highly negative attitude towards oneself, one’s work, and life in general. Burnout is a cumulative stress reaction to ongoing occupational stressors. Christina Maslach – She claims, “The research case is much stronger for the contrasting argument that burnout is more a function of the situation that of the person.” Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) – A disorder that involves enduring a psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event. One key predictor of PTSD: “The intensity of one’s reaction at the time of the traumatic event” determines their future reactions. Dissociative Experiences – An emotional reaction to PTSD. Such as a sense that things are not real, that time is stretching out, or that one is watching oneself in a movie. Psychosomatic Diseases – Defined as genuine physical ailments thought to be caused in part by stress and other psychological factors (ex: high BP, asthma, skin disorders). Positive Psychology – Type of psychology. It focuses on the possible benefits from stress. Posttraumatic Growth – Or positive psychological change (caused from stress). P. 88 Moderator Variables – (ex: social support, hardiness, optimism). Social Support – Refers to various types of aid and succor provided by members of one’s social networks. Shelley Taylor – She questioned whether the fightorflight model applies equally well to both males and females. She found that in reacting to stress, females allocate more effort to the care of offspring and to seeking help and support (“tend and befriend”). She also notes that “basic neuroendocrine core of stress responses” is largely the same for males and females. Sociability – Being friendly and agreeable. Hardiness – A disposition marked by commitment, challenge, and control that is purportedly associated with strong stress resistance. Suzanna (Kobasa) Ouellette – She reasoned that if stress affects some people less that others, some people must be hardier than others. She then used a modified version of the SRRS to measure the amount of stress experienced by a group of executives. She discovered that the hardier executives “were more committed, felt more in control, and had bigger appetites for challenge”. Their traits have since then showed up in many other studies of hardiness. Hardiness is one of the best dispositional predictors of wellbeing. Optimism – A general tendency to expect good outcomes. Pessimistic Explanatory Style – The explanatory style in which people tend to blame setbacks on their own personal shortcomings. Optimistic Explanatory Style – The explanatory style in which people attribute setbacks to temporary situational factors. Behavior Modification – A systematic approach to changing behavior through the application of the principles of conditioning. Antecedents – Events that typically precede the target response. Negative Reinforcement – Token Economy – A system for doling out symbolic reinforcers that are exchanged later for a variety of genuine reinforcers. Shaping – This is accomplished by reinforcing closer and closer approximations of the desired response. Behavioral Contract – A written agreement outlining a promise to adhere to the contingencies of a behavior modification program. Susan Folkman – She found that positive emotions also occur during periods of stress. She conducted a 5year study of coping patterns in 253 caregiving partners of men with AIDS. The caregivers reported experiencing positive emotions about as often as they experienced negative ones. Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe – They explored the relation between stressful life events and physical illness. Stress was produced from change (even in positive events). Their thesis was that disruptions of daily routines are stressful. They then developed the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) to measure life changes as a form of stress. Richard Lazarus – He and Susan Folkman distinguished between primary and secondary appraisals of stress. Neal Miller – He extensively investigated the three types of conflict.
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