CSCI Typed Notes
CSCI Typed Notes 1101
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Apollo12 on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1101 at University of Georgia taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Computer Concepts in Computer Science and Engineering at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Hardware – The physical elements of a computing system (printer, circuit boards, wires, keyboard…) Software – The programs that provide instructions for a computer to execute. Abstraction – A mental model that removes complex details. Abacus – An early device to record numeric values. Blaise Pascal – Mechanical device to add and subtract. Joseph Jacquard – Jacquard’s Loom, the punched card. Charles Babbage – Analytical Engine. British mathematician. Ada Lovelace – First Programmer, the loop. William Burroughs – Sold mechanical adding machines. Dr. Herman Hollerith – Developed the first mechanical tabulator used for taking the census. Alan Turing – Turing Machine, Artificial Intelligence Testing. Harvard Mark I, ENIAC, UNIVAC 1 – Early computers launch new era in mathematics, physics, engineering, and economics. Admiral Grace Murray Hopper – Navy Admiral known for her contribution in the area of programming languages. Vacuum Tubes – Large, not very reliable, generated a lot of heat. Magnetic Drum – Memory device that rotated under a read/write head. Card Readers Magnetic Tape Drives – Development of these sequential auxiliary storage devices. Transistor – Replaced vacuum tube, fast, small, durable, cheap. Magnetic Cores – Replaced magnetic drums, information available instantly. Magnetic Disks – Replaced magnetic tape, data can be accessed directly. Integrated Circuits – Replaced circuit boards, smaller, cheaper, faster, more reliable. Transistors – Now used for memory construction. Terminal – An input/output device with a keyboard and screen. Largescale Integration – Great advances in chip technology. PCs, the Commercial Market, Workstations – Personal Computers were developed as new companies like Apple and Atari came into being. Workstations emerged. Parallel Computing – Computers rely on interconnected central processing units that increase processing speed. Networking – With the Ethernet small computers could be connected and share resources. A file server connected PCs in the late 1980s. ARPANET and LANs Internet Machine Language – Computer programs were written in binary (1s and 0s). Assembly Language and translators – Programs were written in artificial programming languages and were then translated into machine language. Programmer Changes – Programmers divide into application programmers and systems programmers. High Level Language – Use Englishlike statements and made programming easier: Fortran, COBOL, Lisp. Systems Software – utility programs, language translators, operating system which decides which programs, to run and when. Separations between Users and Hardware. Computer programmers now created programs to be used by people who didn’t know how to program. Structured Programming – Pascal, C, C++. New Application Software for Users – Spreadsheets, word processors, database management systems. Microsoft – The windows operating system, and other Microsoft application programs dominate the market. ObjectOriented Design – Based on a hierarchy of data objects (ex: Java). World Wide Web – Allows easy global communication through the Internet. New Users – Today’s user needs no computer knowledge. A computer system is made up of hardware and software. Blaise Pascal – French mathematician build and sold a mechanical device to add and subtract. Leibniz – He built the first mechanical machine that did addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Joseph Jacquard – He developed a special loom for weaving cloth (Jacquard’s Loom). This loom used a series of cards with holes punched in them to specify the use of specific colored thread and therefore dictate the design that was woven into the cloth. These cards inspired the punched keycards that were later used to program modern computers. Charles Babbage – He designed the first mechanical machine that included memory. Ada Lovelace – Daughter of Lord Byron (English poet). She worked with Charles Babbage extending his ideas and editing his work. Dr. Herman Hollerith – He proposed that a punched card be used for counting the census. He is also associated with IBM. Alan Turing – He would have been mentioned in the book Code Breakers. First Generation Hardware: Vacuum Tubes Magnetic Drum Card Readers Magnetic Tape Drives Card Input/Output Assemblers Loaders Second Generation Hardware: Transistor Magnetic Cores (Magnetic Core Memory) Magnetic Disks Circuit Boards FORTRAN Lisp Third Generation Hardware: Integrated Circuits Transistors Terminal Operating Systems Time Sharing Loaders/linkers bundled into an operating system SPSS Fourth Generation Hardware: Largescale Integration PCs, the Commercial Market, Workstations Parallel Computing Networking ARPANET and LANs Internet Personal Computer Structured Programming Spreadsheets Word Processors PCDOS C++ Fifth Generation Hardware: Machine Language Assembly Languages and translators Programmer Changes HTML (for the Web) Java Data Compression – Reducing the amount of space needed to store a piece of data. Compression Ratio – The size of the compressed data divided by the size of the original data. Lossless – A data compression technique. The data can be retrieved without losing any of the original information. Lossy – A data compression technique. The case in which some information is lost in the process of compaction. Analog Data – A continuous representation, analogous to the actual information it represents. Digital Data – A discrete representation, breaking the information up into several elements. Digitize – Breaking information into pieces and representing those pieces separately. SignedMagnitude Representation – The sign represents the ordering and the digits represent the magnitude of the number. Ten’s Complement – Representation of negative numbers (Be specific) Two’s Complement – To make it easier to look at long binary numbers, we make the number line vertical. Overflow – This occurs when the value that we compute can’t fit into the number of bits we have allocated for the result. Floating Point – This representation gets it name because the number of digits is fixed but the radix point floats. Scientific Notation – A form of floatingpoint representation in which the decimal point is kept to the right of the leftmost digit. Character Set – Simply a list of characters and the codes used to represent each one. Keyword Encoding – Frequently used words are replaced with a single character. Pixels – Digitizing a picture and representing it as a collection of individual dots. Resolution – The number of pixels used to represent a picture. RasterGraphics Format – The storage of image information on a pixelbypixel basis. Temporal Compression – Looks for differences between consecutive frames. Spatial Compression – Removes redundant information within a frame. Reclocked – This happens periodically to a digital signal to regain its original shape. RunLength Encoding – A single character may be repeated over and over again in a long sequence. This type of repetition often occurs in large data streams. Huffman Encoding – Uses variablelength bit strings to represent each character. Sampling – The process of measuring the voltage of the signal and recording the appropriate numeric value to digitize the signal. Compact Disk (CD) – Stores audio information digitally. LowLevel Programming Languages: Only two lowlevel programming languages: Machine Language and Assembly Language Machine Language: Machine Language – The instructions built into the hardware of a particular computer. Initially, humans had no choice but to write programs in machine language because other programming languages had not yet been invented. Every processor type has its own set of specific machine instructions. The relationship between the processor and the instructions it can carry out is completely integrated. Each machinelanguage instructions does one very lowlevel task. Pep/8: A Virtual Computer: Virtual Computer – A hypothetical machine designed to contain the important features of real computers that we want to illustrate. Pep/8 – (Textbook says Pep/7) – Designed by Stanley Warford. It has 32 machinelanguage instructions. Features in Pep/8: Pep/8 has 7 registers, 4 of which we focus on this course: Program Counter – Contains the address of the next instruction to be executed. Instruction Register – Contains a copy of the instruction being executed. Accumulator Instruction Format: There are 2 parts to an instruction: The 8bit instruction specifier. And optionally, the 16bit operand specifier. The instruction specifier is made up of several sections: The operation code. The register specifier. The addressingmode specifier. Operation Code – Specifies which instruction is to be carried out. Register Specifier – It is 1bit. It is 0 if the accumulator (register A) is involved in the operation and 1 if register x (the index register) is involved. AddressingMode Specifier – It is 2bit. It says how to interpret the operand part of the instruction. Assembly Language: Assembly Languages – Assign mnemonic letter codes to each machinelanguage instruction. The programmer uses these letter codes in place of binary digits. A program called an assembler reads each of the instructions in mnemonic form and translates it into the machinelanguage equivalent. Memory – A collection of cells, each with a unique physical address. Arithmetic/Logic Unit: Performing basic arithmetic operations (such as adding). Performing logical operations (such as AND, OR, and NOT). Registers – A small amount of special storage units that most modern ALUs have. Input/Output Units: Input Unit – A device through which data and programs from the outside world are entered into the computer (ex: keyboard, the mouse, scanning devices). Output Unit – A device through which results in the computer memory are made available to the outside world (ex: printers and video display terminals). Control Unit: Control Unit – The organizing force in the computer. There are two registers in the control unit: Instruction Register (IR) – Contains the instruction that is being executed. Program Counter (PC) – Contains the address of the next instruction to be executed. Central Processing Unit (CPU) – The ALU and control unit. Flow of Information: The parts are connected to one another by a bus. Bus – A collection of wires that connects parts to one another. The FetchExecute Cycle: Fetch the next instruction. Decode the instruction. Get data if needed. Execute the instruction. RAM and ROM: Random Access Memory (RAM) – Inherent in the idea of being able to access each location is the ability to change the contents of each location. Read Only Memory (ROM) – The contents in locations in ROM can’t be changed. RAM is volatile, ROM is not. Which means that RAM doesn’t retain its bit configuration when the power is turned off, but ROM does. Secondary Storage Devices: Because most of the main memory is volatile and limited, it is essential that there be other types of storage devices where programs and data can be stored when they are no longer being processed. Secondary storage devices can be installed within the computer box at the factory or added later as needed. Magnetic Tape: Magnetic Tape – The first truly mass auxiliary storage device was the magnetic tape drive. Magnetic Disks: Magnetic Disks – A read/write head travels across a spinning magnetic disk, retrieving or recording data. Compact Disks: A CD drive uses a laser to read information stored optically on a plastic disk. CDROM is ReadOnly Memory (ROM). DVD stands for Digital Versatile Disk. The Newest Storage Devices: Thumb or Jump Drives and External Hard Drives. Synchronous Processing: Synchronous Processing – One approach to parallelism is to have multiple processors apply the same program to multiple data sets. Pipelining: Pipelining – Arranges processors in tandem, where each processor contributes one part to an overall computation.
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