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This 92 page Class Notes was uploaded by Apollo12 on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3000 at Georgia State University taught by Peter Rohleder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Personal Health and Wellness in PHIL-Philosophy at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Energy Intake & Expenditure: Need to consume at least enough calories to maintain resting metabolic rate, or the energy required to maintain vital body functions such as: o Respiration, heart rate, body temperature, and blood pressure. o Accounts for 6070% of daily energy expenditure. Energy to digest food = 10% of energy expenditure, and physical activity = 2030% Sources of Energy in the Diet: Protein, Carbohydrates, Nutrients, Alcohol. o Alcohol is not an essential nutrient but does supply energy. Obesity Stats: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has reported that 68% of American adults are considered overweight or obese. Obesity has increased 13.4% in 19601962 to 35.1% in 20052006 in U.S. adults age 2074. Associated with over 112,000 deaths due to cardiovascular disease, over 15,000 deaths due to cancer, and over 35,000 deaths due to noncancer, noncardiovascular disease causes per year. Additional cost of being obese is $1,429 (42%) more than normalweight individuals. 12.4% of children age 25 and 17% of children age 611 are overweight. Factors contributing to excess body fat: Genetic factors, Physiological factors (metabolic rate, hormones, yoyo dieting), o Genes determine body shape, body size, body fat distribution, and the ease in which weight is gained and metabolic rate. Metabolism o Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) – The energy required to maintain vital body functions such as respiration, heart rate, body temperature, and blood pressure. Hormones o Leptin – Hormone produced by fat cells that indicates the degree of hunger to the brain in order to control the storage of body fat. o Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Lifestyle o Eating habits (change in family structure, eating on the go, food labels: interpreting info correctly, and underestimation of serving sizes) o Sedentary lifestyle o Decrease in PE requirements in schools o Food as a coping mechanism o Our thoughts, feelings, emotions contribute to our weight. Strategies for Successful Weight Loss: Do some research (diet books, weightloss programs, dietitians) Adjust the energy balance equation by first increasing physical activity. Keep a food journal Decrease calorie intake by no more than 250500 calories per day. Pay attention to portion sizes Avoid crash diets Set up rewards for success. Eating Disorders: 9/11/2015 Energy Intake & Expenditure Weight Management Chapter 14 Energy-Balance Equation http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/exercise/SM00109 Energy Intake & Expenditure Sources of Energy in the Diet • Need to consume at least enough calories to maintain resting metabolicrate, or the energy required to maintain vital body functionssuch as: – Respiration, heart rate, body temperature, and blood pressure – Accounts for 60-70% of daily energy expenditure • Energy to digest food = 10% of energy expenditure, and physical activity = 20-30% • Are Americans’ diet in line with these requirements? Chapter 8 5 1 9/11/2015 Obesity Stats Factors Contributing to Excess Body Fat http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H156Z08Pck0 • US Department of Health and Human Services has reported that 68% of American Genetic factors Lifestyle factors adults are considered overweight or obese Physiological factors Eating • Obesity has increased from 13.4% in 1960-62 to 35.1% in 2005-06 in U.S. adults Metabolic rate Physical activity age 20-74 Hormones Psychological factors • Associated with over 112,000 deaths due to cardiovascular disease, over 15,000 deaths due to cancer, and over 35,000 deaths due to non-cancer, non- Yo-yo dieting cardiovascular disease causes per year • Additional cost of being obese, is $1,429 (42%) more than normal-weight individuals • 12.4% of children age two to five and 17% of children age six to 11 are overweight Chapter 8 Genetics Metabolism • Genetics-you can’tpick your parents! – Body Type & Genes • Metabolism • “Genetic studies have shown that the particular set of weight-regulating genes that a person has – Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)-the energy is by far the most important factor in required to maintain vital body functionssuch determining how much that person will weigh. as respiration,heart rate, body temp, blood The heritability of obesity—a measure of how pressure much obesity is due to genes versus other factors—is about the same as the heritability of – What determines RMR? height.”-Newsweek, 2009 • Heredity • Genes determine body shape, body size, body fat distribution, the ease in which weight is • Gender: men have a higher RMR-why? • Weight loss/Weight gain gained and metabolic rate • Exercise Hormones Lifestyle • Eating habits • Hormones play a rolein the accumulationof body fat and – Change in family structure – Eating on the go contributeto the locationof fat placement on the body. – Food labels: interpreting info correctly • Hormonalchanges occur frequently in women: puberty, – Underestimation of serving sizes • Sedentary lifestyle (more time at computers) pregnancy,menopause • Decrease in PE requirements in schools • Leptin is a hormoneproduced by fat cells that indicates the degree • Food as a coping mechanism of hunger to thebrain in order to controlthe storageof body fat. • Our thoughts, feelings and emotions contribute to our weight as • Sometimes conditionsthat cause an endocrine(hormonal) well as our actions imbalance can attributeto excess body fat such as Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome(PCOS). 2 9/11/2015 The freshman 15… Health Implications • On Fri/Sat/Sun=1140 calories • As rates increased in the United States, so has the prevalence of health conditions, including: • deathhypertension, certain forms of cancer, type 2 diabetes, premature • 4 weekends a month=4560 calories (1.3 lbs/month) • Moderate weight loss can have a significant positive impact on health • 4 months per semester=5 lbs. gained via beverages • A weight loss of just 5-10% can reduce the risk of these conditions in obese individuals • On Fri/Sat/Sun=1800 calories = 7200 calories/month = 2lbs/month • 4 months per semester=8 lbs. gained via pizza • Total weight gain over a semester=over 13 lbs. • Find balance with food, beverages and exercise Safe Weight Loss Strategies for Successful Weight Loss • It is recommended that you lose at most 1% of • Do some research – Diet books, weight-loss programs such as Weight Watchers, dietitians and your body weight per week personal trainers • Translates to= 0.5-2 lbs per week • Adjust the energy balance equation by first increasing physical activity • 1 lbs of fat= 3,500 Calories • Keep a food journal – 0.5 lbs of fat per week= 250 cal per day deficit • Decrease calorie intake by no more than 250–500 calories per day – 1.0 lbs of fat per week= 500 cal per day deficit • Pay attention to portion sizes • Avoid crash diets – 1.5 lbs of fat per week= 750 cal per day deficit • Set up rewards for success – 2.0 lbs of fat per week= 1,000 cal per day deficit Eating Disorders BMI of Miss America Winners 3 9/11/2015 Body Image Disordered Eating vs Eating Disorders Body image is the mental representation a person holds about • Disordered Eating • Eating Disorder her or his body – General Term – Psychiatric Disorder It consists of self perceptions, media images, thoughts, attitudes, and emotions – Describes behaviors used – Describes severe A negative body image is characterized by dissatisfaction with to keep body weight low disturbances in body image body in general or some part of the body in particular but are not severe enough and eating behaviors to make someone seriously – Specific diagnostic criteria Different cultures have different ideas of the “ideal” body type ill in the DSM-IV • Example: Not eating after – Affect about 10 million sunset American females and 1 million males Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa • Characterized by Intense fear • Characterized by recurrent of gaining weight episodes of binge eating followed by a compensatory • Strategies to avoid gaining behavior known as “purging” weight: fast completely, (>2xwk) eliminate all but 1 or 2 foods, • Strategies to avoid gaining restrict total calories to only a weight: vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, enemas and exercise few per day • Deadliest Psychiatric Disorder • Begins in adolescence (11-12 in Females 15-24 years old years) or older (40-60 years) • Research suggests that about 5% of college-age women have bulimia Binge-Eating Disorder Body Dysmorphic Disorder • Characterizedby compulsivebinge eating. • Excessive concern over a perceived defect in his or her • Not followedby a purge physical features • Obsession over a specific feature • Don’t eat becauseof or several features hunger – Distorted body image – Stress, conflict, – Inaccurate self-perceptions entertainment • Can lead to depression, anxiety, other psychological disorders • Emotional Disorders • It is estimated that 1–2% of the world's population meet all the diagnostic criteria for BDD 4 9/11/2015 Treating Eating Disorders If you know someone… • Speak • Must address both • Dealing with psychological – Talk to them out of love and concern, not judgment or frustration. problematiceating aspects – It can take weeks, months and years for someone to recover, it is a slow, behaviors and themisuse of • Stabilizingeating habits difficult and worthwhile process. food to manage stress and • Changingbehavior patterns – Also speak to the individuals family-yes, they will probably be angry with emotions you, but it is worth it. and thoughts • Support • Avertinga medical crisisby • Possiblyinvolving – Find out how you can support the individual, remember they are much restoring adequate body medicationand/or more than an eating disorder. weight hospitalization • Learn – Learn about the eating disorder and become familiar with signs and symptoms. 5 10/30/2015 • • • • • • • • • • • © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. 2 All Rights Reserved. 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 5. 2. 6. 7. 3. 8. 4. 9. © 2012 © 2012 McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill Companies. 3 Companies. 4 All Rights All Rights Reserved. Reserved. © 2012 © 2012 McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill Companies. 5 Companies. 6 All Rights All Rights Reserved. Reserved. 1 10/30/2015 © 2012 © 2012 McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill Companies.7 Companies.8 All Rights All Rights Reserved. Reserved. © 2012 © 2012 McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill Companies.9 Companies10 All Rights All Rights Reserved. Reserved. • • • • • • • • • © 2012 McGraw-Hill 11 Companies12 All Rights Reserved. 2 10/30/2015 • • • • • • • • • • • • © 2012 © 2012 McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill Companies. 13 Companies. 14 All Rights All Rights Reserved. Reserved. • • • • © 2012 © 2012 McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill Companies. 15 Companies. 16 All Rights All Rights Reserved. Reserved. • • • • • • • © 2012 © 2012 McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill ComAll Rights17 ComAll Rights18 Reserved. Reserved. 3 10/30/2015 • • • • • © 2012 © 2012 McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill Companies.19 Companies.20 All Rights All Rights Reserved. Reserved. 21 CHAPTER 20 4 Exercise For health and fitness Chapter 13 1 What is Physical Fitness? • The body’s ability to respond or adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort • Five components of health-related fitness: – Cardiorespiratory endurance – Muscular strength – Muscular endurance – Flexibility – Body composition 2 Components of health-related Fitness • Cardiorespiratory endurance - ability to perform prolonged, large- muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high intensity, depending on the heart and lungs’ ability to deliver oxygen to the bloodstream • Muscular strength - amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort • Muscular endurance - ability to resist fatigue and to sustain a given level of muscle tension • Flexibility - ability of joints to move through their full range of motion • Body composition –proportion of fat and fat-free mass, or the amount of lean body tissue versus body fat 3 Skill-related components of fitness • The ability to perform a particular sport or activity – Speed – ability to perform a movement in a short period of time – Power – ability to exert force rapidly, based on a combination of strength and speed – Agility – ability to change the body’s position quickly and accurately – Balance – ability to maintain equilibrium while either moving or stationary – Coordination – ability to perform motor tasks accurately and smoothly using body movements and the senses – Reaction time – ability to respond quickly to a stimulus 4 Physical activity and exercise for health and fitness The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2008 statistics about American adults: About 31% participate in some leisure-time physical activity Leisure-time physical activity decreased by nearly 6% between 2003 and 2009 About 40% of Americans participate in no leisure-time activities People with higher levels of education are more active than are people with lower educational attainment . . . 54% of college graduates exercise regularly, compared with 37% of high school dropouts 5 Percentage of Adult Americans Reporting No LTA Physical Activity on a continuum • Any body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and requiring energy – Arranged on a continuum based on the amount of energy they require • Exercise – a subset of physical activity – planned, structured, repetitive movement of the body 7 Increasing physical activity to improve health and wellness – 2008 – DHHS issued Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans with recommendations for promoting health – For substantial health benefits, adults should do at least 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity – For additional benefits, adults should increase their aerobic physical activity to 300 minutes a week – Adults should also do muscle strengthening activities – All adults should avoid inactivity 8 Figure 13.2 Examples of moderate amounts of physical activity 9 Increasing physical activity and fitness • Two-thirds of Americans are overweight • 150 minutes of exercise per week may not be enough • For weight management, recommend 90 minutes of physical activity per day • Increase duration and intensity of exercise • ACSM has issued guidelines to develop fitness 10 How much physical activity is enough? • Amount of activity needed depends on individual’s health status and goals • Moderate intensity versus high-intensity exercise • Continuous versus intermittent exercise • Goal of 150 minutes per week • Raise activity to 300 minutes per week 11 Table 13.1 Physical Activity and Exercise Recommendations for Promoting General Health, Fitness, and Weight Management 12 Benefits of Exercise • Reduced risk of premature death • Improved cardiorespiratory functioning • More efficient metabolism • Improved cell health • Improved body composition 13 Disease Prevention and Management Cardiovascular Disease Metabolic Syndrome Insulin resistance High blood pressure Abnormal blood fats Abdominal fat deposits Type 2 diabetes Blood clotting abnormalities Blood vessel inflammation Blood fat levels Improves blood fat levels - improves HDL Improves blood pressure High blood pressure Coronary heart disease Stroke Cancer Osteoporosis Type 2 diabetes 14 Improved Psychological and Emotional Wellness • Reduced anxiety • Reduced depression and improved mood • Improved sleep • Enhanced self-esteem, self-confidence, and self- efficacy • Enhanced creativity and intellectual functioning • Improved work productivity • Increased opportunities for social interaction 15 Disease Prevention and Management • Improved immune function • Prevention of injures and low-back pain • Improved wellness for life 16 Designing your exercise program • The best exercise program has two primary characteristics: – It promotes your health – It’s fun! • Physical activity pyramid • Work up to goals • Move to next level of pyramid 17 First Steps • Medical Clearance – Men over 40 and women over 50 • Basic principles of physical training – Specificity – Progressive overload • Frequency • Intensity • Time • Type – Reversibility – Individual differences – Diminished Returns • Selecting activities 18 Principles of Physical Training: Adaptation to Stress • The goal of physical training is to produce these long-term changes and improvements in the body’s functioning. • Over time, immediate, short-term adjustments translate into long-term changes and improvements. • These principles include: • Specificity • Progressive overload • Reversibility • Individual differences • Diminished return(not in your book!) Specificity: Adapting to Type of Training • must perform exercises designed specifically for thatou component; this is the principle of specificity. • not be very effective in improving cardiorespiratoryill endurance or flexibility. • A well-rounded exercise program includes all parts of the body or towards specific sport activities Progressive Overload: Adapting to Amount of • The amounTraining and the FITT Principlee too little will not have much effect upon fitness levels, and too much will increase the likelihood of an injury. • Progression is critical since exercising at the same levels will not provide adaptations and can lead to a plateau. • FITT: a principle for overload – Frequency—How often – Intensity—How hard – Time—How long (duration) – Type—Mode of activity Reversibility: Adapting to a Reduction in Training • The body adjusts to low levels of activity the same way that it does to higher levels. • Fitness is a reversible adaptation. • improvements are lost within 2 months.itness • Not all fitness improvements are lost within 2 months. • Strength fitness can be maintained as infrequently as once a week compared to cardiovascular or cellular fitness levels. Individual Differences: Limits on Adaptability • We are not all created equal • We all respond differently • CV ability can be changed about 15-30% • Sufficient to achieve fitness Diminished Returns: • Genetic ceiling? • Improvement in physical fitness slows and eventually levels off Figure 13.5 Physical activity pyramid 25 Health and fitness benefits of different amounts of physical activity and exercise Progression of an Exercise Program COMPONENTS OF HEALTH RELATED FITNESS Assessing Cardiorespiratory Fitness • Best quantitative measure of cardiorespiratory endurance is maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2max) • The following are considered simple assessment tests to estimate for maximal oxygen consumption (within + 10-15% of the results of a lab test): • The 1-mile walk test • The 3-minute step test • The 1.5-mile run-walk test Assessing Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Laboratory Tests VO2 Max The best indicator of cardiovascular fitness http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=arW gYq34d3E Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercises • Frequency: 3-5 days per week • Intensity within your target heart rate range – Maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2m)x – Target heart rate range • Refer to Take Charge: Determining Your Target Heart Rate Range in your textbook on page 367 • 55-90% MHR – 12-18 RPE • Time (Duration): 20-60 minutes • Warm-up and cool-down • Stretching: best after the active part of your workout 32 Critical Thinking Questions • Why would an individual choose 3 days instead of 5? • Why would the individual choose the lower end of the heart rate range over the higher end? • Why would the individual choose 20 minutes instead of 60 minutes? • Why would the individual choose 60 minutes instead of 20 minutes? Developing Muscular Strength and Endurance • Muscular Strength – Purpose? – Examples? • Muscular Endurance – Purpose? – Examples? 34 Basic Muscle Physiology • Muscles consist of individual muscle fibers (cells) connected in bundles • Muscle fibers are made up of smaller protein structures called myofibrils • Myofibrils are comprised of contractile units called sarcomeres (actin and myosin) • Proper strength training causes individual fibers to increase the number of myofibrils resulting in hypertrophy • Inactivity can reverse this process resulting in atrophy Skeletal Muscle Tissue Basic Muscle Physiology • Slow-twitch fibers are: • Fatigue resistant • Don’t contract as rapidly and forcefully as fast-twitch fibers • Rely primarily on the aerobic energy system • Fast-twitch fibers: • Contract rapidly and forcefully • Fatigue more quickly than slow-twitch fibers • Rely more on the anaerobic energy system Types of Muscle Contractions Applying the FITT Principle • Frequency: 2-3 nonconsecutive days/week allowing 1 day of rest between workouts – Based on the ACSM guidelines • Ilifting as heavy as 80% of your 1 RM; Enduranceres requires 40-60% of your 1 RM • Time: (Repetitions and Sets) 1-5 reps for strength; 15- 20 reps for endurance; 8-12 for a combination of both, making sure each set leads to overload of that muscle group • Type: (Mode of Exercise) target large muscle groups – Agonist muscle groupsing opposing muscles – Antagonist muscle groups Muscular Strength F .I.T.T. Strength Endurance Health F 2-3 days/week every other day 2-3 days/week I 60-80% 1RM 40-60% 1 RM 60-70% 1 RM T 1-3 sets, 1-5 reps 2-5 sets, 15-20 reps 1 set, 8- 12 reps T weight training weight training weight training e 3-5 minutes 1-3 minutes 1-3 minutes s t What Is Flexibility? • Flexibility – The ability of a joint to move through its normal range of motion – It is a highly adaptable fitness component and responds well when utilized as part of a fitness program – Joint specific, meaning that you must work all major joints, not just a few Static Stretching • Widely recommended • Stretch slowly until tension • Hold stretch for 15-30 sec. • Active / passive assistance Ballistic Stretching • Dynamic movement • Uses momentum • May be important for athletes • Specificity of movement Dynamic Stretching • Stretching through movement that is exercise specific • Develop functional flexibility • Fluid movements-no bouncing • Challenging • http://orgs.jmu.edu/strength/dynamic_warmup_for_soccer.htm Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) • Most effective • Combines methods (active and passive) • Promotes increase in strength Passive vs Active Stretching • Passive stretching: • Active stretching: – Uses an outside force – Muscle is stretched by – Stretch is not contracting the controlled by muscles opposing muscle themselves – Low risk of injury – Higher risk of injury – If a partner is used, – May not be able to communication is very produce enough stress important (stretch) to gain flexibility Take home message: Active static stretching, with occasional passive assist is safest and most convenient technique Creating a Successful Program to Develop Flexibility Applying the FITT Principle to Develop Flexibility ACSM recommendations Frequency: 2-3 days per week (minimum) Intensity: Stretch to the point of mild discomfort, not pain Time: Hold stretches for 15-30 seconds, and perform 2-4 times Type: Stretching exercise* that focuses on major joints *Which type will you choose? Static? Dynamic? PNF? Benefits of Flexibility – Joint health – Prevention of low-back pain and injuries – Relief of aches and pains – Relief of muscle cramps – Improved body position and strength for sports (and life) – Maintenance of good posture and balance – Relaxation – Improving impaired mobility Training in specific skills • Final component in your fitness program • Learn the skills required for your choice of sport – Get instruction from a qualified instructor – Refine technique – Get over stumbling blocks – Perhaps relearn skills you may have learned incorrectly 49 Putting It All T ogether • Cardiorespiratory endurance – At least 20-60 minutes – In your target heart rate range – 3 to 5 days a week • Muscular strength and endurance – Major muscle groups (8-10 machines, one or more sets) – 2 or 3 nonconsecutive days a week • Flexibility exercise – 2 or 3 days a week (ideally 5-7 days) – After exercise when muscles are warm • Skill training 50 Figure 13.8 FITT Principle 51 Getting Started and Staying on Track Select instructors, equipment, and facilities Find help and advice about exercise Select equipment Choose a fitness center Eat and Drink for Exercise. Balanced diet Drink before and during exercise Drink 2 cups of water 2 hours before exercising Manage your fitness program Start slowly, get in shape gradually Beginning phase Progress phase Maintenance phase Consistency: the key to physical improvement Assess your fitness Check endurance from your time for the 1.5 mile run-walk test Preventing and Managing Athletic Injuries • Care for injuries with “R-I-C-E” – Rest – Ice – Compression – Elevation • Basic guidelines 1. Stay in condition 2. Warm-up and cool down 3. Use proper body mechanics 4. Don’t exercise when ill 5. Use proper equipment 6. Don’t return to normal exercise program until athletic injuries have healed 53 Exercise for Health and Fitness Chapter 13 54 Chapter One TAKING CHARGE OF YOUR HEALTH https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wdu6ykgpgac © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Wellness: The New Health Goal • Wellness vs. Health • The Dimensions of Wellness – Physical – Emotional – Intellectual – Interpersonal (or Social) – Spiritual – Environmental – Other aspects: Occupational and Financial © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights 2 Figure 1.1 The Wellness Continuum © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights 3 Table 1.1 Examples of Qualities and Behaviors Associated with the Dimensions of Wellness © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights 4 New Opportunities for T aking Charge • 1900 versus today • Infectious disease – A disease that is communicable from one person to another • Chronic disease – A disease that develops and continues over a long period of time Companies. All Rights 5 Figure 1.2 Public Health Achievements of the Twentieth Century © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights 6 T able 1.3 Key Contributors to Death Among Americans, 2005 Number Percentage of Deaths of per year Total Deaths per year Tobacco 440,000 18.1 Obesity 112,000 4.6 Alcohol 85,000 3.5 Microbial agents 75,000 3.1 Toxic agents 55,000 2.3 Companies. All Rights 7 Table 1.2 Leading Causes of Death in the United States , 2007 Causes of Death Number Causes of Death Number of Deaths of Deaths Heart disease 616,067 Diabetes mellitus 71,382 Cancer 562,875 Influenza and pneumonia 52,717 Stroke 135,952 Kidney disease 46,448 Chronic lower 127,924 respiratory diseases Septicemia (systemic blood 34,828 Unintentional injuries 123,706 infection) Intentional self-harm 34,598 Alzheimer's disease 74,632 (suicide) Chronic liver disease 29,165 © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights 8 Figure 1.3 Quantity of Life versus Quality of Life Healthy life 66.2 years Life expectancy 77.9 years © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights 9 T able 1.4 Leading Causes of Death Among Americans Ages 15-24 Companies. All Rights 10 The Healthy People Initiative • Healthy People 2020 objectives: – Eliminate preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death – Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups – Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all – Promote healthy development and healthy behaviors across every stage of life Companies. All Rights 11 Healthy Campus 2010 • Healthy Campus 2010 – Based on the guidelines of Healthy People 2010, but designed specifically for college students – Assists colleges in developing plans to improve student health – More than 200 health-related objectives Companies. All Rights 12 Health Issues for Diverse Populations • Sex and Gender • Ethnicity • Income and Education • Disability • Geographic location • Sexual orientation Companies. All Rights 13 Figure 1.4 Self-rated Health Status and Quality of Care © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights 14 Factors that Influence Wellness • Health habits • Heredity/Family history • Environment • Access to health care • Behavior can make a difference! Companies. All Rights 15 Reaching Wellness Through Lifestyle Management • Getting serious about your health – Examine current health habits – Choose a target behavior – Learn about your target behavior – Find help Companies. All Rights 16 Building Motivation for Change • Examine the pros and cons of change • Boost self-efficacy – Locus of control • Internal control versus external control – Visualization and self-talk – Role models and supportive people – Identify and overcome key barriers to change © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights 17 Enhancing Y our Readiness to Change The transtheoretical, or “stages of change,” model: • Precontemplation • Contemplation • Preparation • Action • Maintenance • Termination Companies. All Rights 19 Figure 1.5 The Stages of Change: A Spiral Model © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights 21 Dealing With Relapse • Forgive yourself • Give yourself credit for the progress you have already made • Move on Companies. All Rights 22 Developing Skills for Change: Creating a Personalized Plan 1. Monitor your behavior and gather data 2. Analyze the data and identify patterns 3. Be “SMART” about setting goals 4. Devise a plan of action – Get what you need – Modify your environment – Control related habits – Reward yourself – Involve the people around you – Plan for challenges 5. Make a personal contract © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights 23 24 Putting Y our Plan Into Action • Stick to your commitment. • Remember your reasons to make changes. • Remember, you are the boss. • Use all your strategies. • Make sure your environment is change-friendly. • Get support and encouragement from others. • Keep track of your progress in a health journal. • Give yourself regular rewards. Companies. All Rights 25 Staying With It • Social influences • Levels of motivation and commitment • Choice of techniques and level of effort • Stress barriers • Procrastinating, rationalizing, and blaming Companies. All Rights 26 Being Healthy for Life • Making changes in your world • What does the future hold? Companies. All Rights 27 Chapter One TAKING CHARGE OF YOUR HEALTH © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights
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