Week 1 Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clara Wimberly on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HI 1073 at Mississippi State University taught by Alison Greene in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 213 views. For similar materials see Modern US History in History at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
WEEK ONE Class 1 Overview 18651877 Reconstruction “Unfinished Revolution” Experiment with interracial democracy Era of black communities building and political participation Redemption Southern white counter revolution Reestablished white supremacy and conservative government Undermined Republican Party in South Retreat The North lost interest in reforming the South Economy became top priority Why 1877? It is the end of reconstruction Review of time not covered from Early US to Modern US 1865 600,000 died in the Civil War and a few were injured. After the Civil War, expenses were high and the United States’ economy was shot After the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, it was pretty clear that the war was about slaves. What was reconstruction? Reconstruction was about recovering after the Civil War and also getting the Confederate States back in the Union. The leaders were Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner and their goals were to, Rebuild the South Punish Confederates Free slaves The Freedman’s Bureau established in 1865 by Congress to help former black slaves and poor whites in the South in the aftermath of the Civil War Also in 1865, after President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated, the Radical Republicans did not like he successor, Andrew Johnson Andrew Johnson Andrew Johnson was from Tennessee and served as Lincoln’s Vice President and after Lincoln was assassinated, Johnson took over. Johnson wanted to pardon the Confederates who had loyalty to the Union. He issued a series of proclomations, aligning his plan for reuniting the nation, that began the period of Presidential Reconstruction from 18651867. There was a group called the Radical Republicans who basically went against everything Johnson wanted. The Radicals were for the powers of the federal government that had been born during the Civil War. In January 1865, The 13 Amendment was passed, which prohibited slavery in the United States. In June 1866, The 14 Amendment passed, which gave national citizenship to all slaves, “due process” was brought about, and denied former Confederates to hold office. In February 1869, The 15 Amendment passed which prohibited denial of suffrage because race, color, or previous condition of servitude. By 1868, North Republicans considered Reconstruction successful. Elite white Southerners resented the Freedman’s Bureau, also disliked any law that threatened white supremacy, and also concerned with the fact that under the law, black southerners were their equal. In 1866, the Ku Klux Klan was founded. Nathan Bedford Forrest – Ku Klux Klan cofounder John B. Gordon – Georgia Klan Leader The first Klan actions were to burn down black schools and churches. Their main goal was to keep African Americans from holding office. In response to that in 1871, Ulysses S. Grant passed a series of enforcement laws to protect voting rights of blacks, nicknamed the “Ku Klux Klan Acts”. The Panic of 1873 Depression occurred because of massive industrial crisis. Election of 1874 The Democrats won, and over threw the Reconstruction government. “White Man’s Party” came about. White gangs formed nicknamed the “Rifle Club” In 1875, The “Mississippi Plan” came about which was the blueprint for Whites to regain power in their states. Election of 1876 Republican, Rutherford B. Hayes against Democrat, Samuel Tilden. Both candidates ran on ending Reconstruction. This was the first stolen election. Hayes took the oath of office in a private office, there was no public inauguration. Class II The Gilded Age and an Age of Protest A. The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 B. The Second Industrial Revolution C. Gilded Age Ideals of Wealth a. Survival of the fittest b. Laissezfaire capitalism c. Conspicuous consumption D. Labor in the Gilded Age a. Changing nature of work b. Knights of Labor c. American Federation of Labor E. The Farm Crisis F. The Rise and Fall of the Populists a. The Farmers Alliance b. The Populist Party c. The Election of 1896: McKinley vs. Bryan 1873 Before the recession, the railroad started cutting wages A. The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 Another wage cute happened All of the workers walked off the job WildCat Strikes: spontaneous, not led by a labor union Martinsburg, VA: workers cut off train engines People would raid the trains for food Nation wide strike that happened after the smaller railroad strikes Railroad head was friends with President Hayes and got him to issue troops to stop the protests Over 600 people were killed Led the formation of the National Guard B. The Second Industrial Revolution Between 1865 1900 a. The U.S. population grew from 36 million to 76 million b. Production of goods grew from $2 billion to $13 billion c. The industrial workforce grew from 1 million to 5 million The biggest reason? a. RAILROADS!! b. Recipients of the largest government subsidy in American history Railroads allowed for: a. Movement of raw materials b. Movement of labor to factories c. Movement of goods to consumers d. Communication through telegraph lines strung along Railroad lines e. Permanent settlement of the Great Plains C. Gilded Age Ideals of Wealth Survival of the fittest If you were born rich, you were always rich. If you were born poor, you were always poor. Andrew Carnegie, Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller Andrew Carnegie He believed that the rich had a moral obligation to promote the advancement of society. He denounced the “worship of money” and donated a lot of his money to philanthropies. On the other hand, he kept his factories running nonstop, having two twelve hour shifts every day except Independence Day. John D. Rockefeller He like Carnegie, donated some of his money. He also established a vertically integrated monopoly, which contributed to the drilling, refining, storage, and distribution of oil. D. Labor in the Gilded Age There were longer hours, more rules, less freedom Skilled workers got the boot, and cheap labor happned more. Child labor was the cheapest option African Americans and immigrants were given the most dangerous, lowest paying jobs in the most dangerous workplaces. American Federation of Labor Founder: Samuel Gompers E. Farm Crisis Barrow Plantation Oglethorpe, GA ^ Transition from sharecropping to tenant farming Problems with agriculture a. Crop lien system b. One crop agriculture i. Cotton in South ii. Wheat in Midwest iii. this flooded the production, lowered prices, farmers went broke c. Problems for farmers in an industrial society i. Railroads ii. Property taxes iii. Agricultural trusts + Guano (bat poop) trust iv. Deflation v. Gold standard vi. The Grange F. The Rise and Fall of the Populists The Farmer Alliance an organized agrarian economic movement among American farmers that developed and flourished in 1875 Forming the Populist Party a. Omaha Platform i. Free coinage of silver ii. Regulate railroads iii. Sub treasury iv. 8hour workday v. Abolition of private police forces vi. Immigration restriction vii. Graduated income tax b. Election of 1896 i. William McKinley Republican ii. William Jennings Bryan – Democrat
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