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Organic Chemistry Chapter 3 Part A Notes

by: Amanda Biddlecome

Organic Chemistry Chapter 3 Part A Notes Chemistry 2230

Marketplace > Clemson University > Chemistry 2230 > Organic Chemistry Chapter 3 Part A Notes
Amanda Biddlecome
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About this Document

These notes cover about half of the Chapter 3 notes.
Organic Chemistry 1
Dr. Schroeder
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Biddlecome on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry 2230 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Schroeder in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 87 views.


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Date Created: 01/27/16
Organic  Chemistry  2230   Chapter  3:  Introduction  to  Organic  Chemistry   January  25,  2016   Amanda  Biddlecome     1)  Nomenclature     -­‐primary  carbons=when  a  carbon  is  bonded  to  only  one  other  carbon       *1°       *Example:  Butyl     -­‐secondary  carbon=when  one  carbon  is  bonded  to  two  other  carbons       *2°       *Naming-­‐“sec”-­‐name       *Example:  sec-­‐butyl     -­‐tertiary  carbon=when  one  carbon  is  bonded  to  three  other  carbons       *3°       *Naming-­‐“tert”-­‐name       *Example:  tert-­‐butyl     -­‐quaternary  carbon=when  one  carbon  is  bonded  to  four  other  carbons       *4°     2)  Nomenclature  of  Alkanes     -­‐Systematic  Approach  (IUPAC)       *1)  determine  the  longest  chain  of  consecutive  carbons       *2)  Number  the  chain  so  the  substituent  gets  the  lowest  number       *3)  Assign  the  lowest  possible  numbers  to  all  substituents  and  if         there’s  more  than  one  substituent,  you  alphabetize  them.  If  two         substituents  are  the  same,  use  prefixes  (2=di,  3=tri,  4=tetra):           Example:  if  there’s  two  methyl  groups,  it’s  dimethyl-­‐;  don’t           alphabetize  by  prefixes       *4)  If  the  same  substituent  number  happens  in  both  directions,  go  to         the  alphabet:  the  first  letter  alphabetically  gets  the  lowest  number       *5)  The  parent  chain  is  the  one  with  the  most  substituents  (the  most         stuff  bonded  to  it)       3)  Nomenclature  of  Cycloalkanes     -­‐Cycloalkanes  are  structures  with  rings       *alkanes=hydrocarbons  with  single  bonds       *cyclo=rings     -­‐it’s  easier  to  look  at  these  in  skeletal  form     -­‐you  need  at  least  3  carbons  to  form  a  ring     -­‐the  general  formula  is  C H   n 2n   -­‐Cyclopropane       *3  carbons=propane       *triangle     -­‐Cyclobutane       *4  carbons=butane       *square/box     -­‐Cyclopentane       *5  carbons=pentane       *pentagon     -­‐Cyclohexane       *6  carbons=hexane       *hexagon     -­‐use  the  same  basic  rules  that  you  use  for  naming  alkanes       *1)  if  you  have  only  one  group  bonded  to  a  ring,  you  don’t  need         numbers  in  the  name         *2)  if  there’s  more  than  one  substituent,  you  need  to  alphabetize  them       to  number  them  properly  (alphabetize:  iso  and  cyclo;  don’t           alphabetize  di-­‐,  tri-­‐,  tetra-­‐,  etc.,  sec-­‐,  tert-­‐)     4)  Alkyl  Halides     -­‐abbreviate  these  R-­‐X       *R=carbon  chain       *X=halide  (Group  7  elements)     -­‐named  with  parents     -­‐primary  halide  is  bonded  to  a  primary  carbon     -­‐a  secondary  halide  is  bonded  to  a  secondary  carbon     -­‐a  tertiary  halide  is  bonded  to  a  tertiary  carbon     -­‐when  halogens  are  bonded  to  other  things,  change  the  –ine  ending  to  –o       *Ex:  Fluorine=Fluoro     5)  Ethers     -­‐oxygen  atom  bonded  to  two  R  groups       *if  the  R  groups  are  the  same,  it’s  symmetrical       *if  the  R  groups  are  different,  it’s  asymmetrical     -­‐ether=parent     -­‐if  there’s  two  substituents,  alphabetize  the  name     6)  Naming  Ethers     -­‐can  also  be  named  as  a  functional  group       *parent  group+oxygen+substituent       *substituent  prefix+oxy  (Ex:  methoxy,  ethoxy,  isopropoxy)     7)  Naming  Alcohols     -­‐a  primary  alcohol  is  bonded  to  a  primary  carbon     -­‐a  secondary  alcohol  is  bonded  to  a  secondary  carbon     -­‐a  tertiary  alcohol  is  bonded  to  a  tertiary  carbon     -­‐common  names  use  “alcohol”  as  the  parent     -­‐systematic  names  use  carbon  parent  with  the  end  as  –ol     -­‐Rules:         *1)  find  the  longest  carbon  chain  that  contains  the  –OH  (alcohol)         group  because  alcohols  take  priority  over  everything  else       *2)  number  the  chain  to  give  –OH  the  lowest  number       *3)  if  more  than  one  OH  group  is  present,  use  prefixes:  put  the  prefix         in  front  of  the  –ol  ending,  not  at  the  beginning  of  the  parent       *4)  if  there  are  other  substituents  on  the  chain,  the  –OH  group  gets  the       lowest  number:  alcohol  always  gets  priority       *5)  all  other  substituents  should  have  the  smallest  numbers  possible,         but  only  if  alcohol  has  its  lowest  number       *6)  substituents  should  be  listed  in  alphabetical  order     8)  Amines     -­‐anytime  you  see  Nitrogen,  you  have  an  amine  group     -­‐primary  amine=bonded  to  1  carbon  and  2  hydrogen  molecules     -­‐secondary  amine=bonded  to  2  carbons  and  1  hydrogen  molecule     -­‐tertiary  amine=bonded  to  3  carbons  and  no  hydrogen       9)  Naming  Amines     -­‐common  names       *call  them  amines  (Ex:  butylamine)     -­‐systematic  names       *similar  to  alcohols  but  end  in  amine       *groups  attached  to  Nitrogen  are  preceded  by  “N”      


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