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social psych notes weeks 1 and 2

by: Eiphyllis

social psych notes weeks 1 and 2 psy 13

Marketplace > Tufts University > Psychlogy > psy 13 > social psych notes weeks 1 and 2
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About this Document

chapters 1-3
Social Psychology
Professor Remedios
Class Notes
social, Psychology, remedios, tufts




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eiphyllis on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psy 13 at Tufts University taught by Professor Remedios in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Tufts University.


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Date Created: 01/27/16
Social Psychology Chapter 1 Personality psychologists focus on individual differences Cross-cultural research Fundamental attribution error Perception more important than the objective properties Naïve realism Chapter 2 The bystander effect Diffusion of responsibility "telling more than you can know" phenomenon Internal/external validity Results significant (trustworthy) if the probability level is less than 5 in 100 that the results might be due to chance factors rather than the independent variables studied Basic dilemma of the social psychologist EEG Fmri Deception experiment IRB required if institution seeks gov't funding Chapter 3 Social cognition Computers can’t do it, we don't do it perfectly Automatic thinking Controlled thinking Though we stand side by side in the same meadow, My eyes will never see what is beheld by yours Schemas We don't have to think for 15 minutes about a person we just met we categorize them automatically Quasi Korsakov's syndrome-must literally make oneself and one's world up every moment As long as people have reason to believe their schemas are accurate, it is perfectly reasonable to use them to resolve ambiguity "take out your wallet" in an alley Accessibility Priming These traits didn’t influence their impressions of Donald because the words did not apply to Donald’s behavior. Have to both accessible and applicable Self-fulfilling prophecy You play a role in causing the target's response Automatic thinking Reign of error His error lies not with his characterization of the evidence but in his failure to realize his role in producing it. Boys who are better at math Friendliness breeds friendliness If the schema of helpfulness was just primed—maybe you just saw a clerk in the store go out of her way to help someone — you will be more likely to help the stranger scent of cleanliness increases the degree to which people trust strangers and their willingness to help others Correlation not causation tho when we think about something or someone, we do so with reference to how our bodies are reacting if we are tired, for example, we might interpret the world more negatively than if we are feeling peppy and full of energy So get some sleep and you'll cheer up buttercup Priming metaphors for body and mind Warm, cold Heavy, light Mental shortcuts usually lead to good decisions in a short amount of time What to do when too many schemas to apply? Judgmental heuristics Physicians and the availability heuristic 10 improvements for course-->higher rating for course Representativeness heuristic Base rate information Not really used that much in decisions/impressions Unconscious thinking critical to navigating world but can sometimes lead to errors Barnum (008) effect Cocktail party effect Often, however, it is our nonconscious minds that choose the goal for us, basing the decision in part on which goal has been recently activated or primed An important detail is that participants did not make a connection between the sentence-making task and the economics game—they thought the two tasks were completely unrelated. Even so, the people who made sentences out of the words having to do with God or had the words civic and contract left significantly more money for the next participant I've primed my entire life Content of our schema influence by our culture Toolbox model Analytic thinking style Holistic thinking style Japanese-notice bkg changes American-main object changes Controlled thinking only about one thing at a time Pendulum of determining the importance of automatic vs controlled thinking Illusion of free will Correlation isnt causation; thinking about dancing may not be what caused the dancing (third variable problem of correlation) Opposite is also true; may not realize how much we are causing an action Special keyboards are actually thoughts of facilitator not child When experiencing temptation, people who believe that they can control their actions probably exert more effort to do so Regardless of how much free will human beings really have, it is in society’s best interest for us all to believe that we have it. Counterfactual thinking The easier to undo the more mental distress Not good if leads to rumination (which contributes to depression) But good if motivates you enough to study harder for next test Overconfidence barrier Fewer errors in judgment when taking into account that they might be wrong and the opposite of what they think/believe may be true If you want to generalize you must have a large unbiased sample Yay grad psych students better in statistical reasoning (greatest improvement in testing) Did not differ in overall intelligence we wouldn’t recommend that you ask Watson to find you a romantic partner, raise your children, or help you negotiate a difficult business deal Leave that to us humans People are flawed scientists of the world We can end up causing someone to behave consistently with our expectation Representativeness heuristic-how similar something is to a typical case The more you believe in free will the more willing one is to help others and the less likely one is to engage in immoral actions such as cheating Statistical reasoning improved dramatically with training (stats course) Even soon after not necessarily after years of learning Research methods and ethics Theoretical variable Social media use Academic performance Construct validity Friendster vs facebook All variables need to be of high construct validity No study can have perfect construct validity but high validity Random assignment-"extremely important feature" Removes risk that past exposure determines results rather than study environment exposure Treatment group: FB Control group: no FB 2*2 design Common in social psych studies Confound-the pure use of the computer could be distracting not the use of social media Random assignment gets rid of a lot of confounds Don’t need lab set up for correlational study Can use a survey Third variable problem 1.0 correlation: essentially measuring the same thing two different ways Average is 0.30 or 0.40 correlation Negative-as one goes up the other goes down DOES NOT mean that both variables decrease together (that would actually be a positive correlation) Cannot conclude causality from correlation Cost benefit analysis Little harm -as much as in everyday life Unethical to run study that doesn’t contribute anything to society Distribute benefits fairly Consent form-8th grade reading level Can't rush consent Can't offer penalties for not participating Seminary students who study theology and are presumed to be prosocial and religious are less likely to help if they are running late What varied is whether they were late Self­perception part 1 We spend a lot of time thinking about ourselves Self-schema guides self-concept Our nonverbals govern how others think and feel about us Assertive, confident, optimistic: high power people High testosterone, low cortisol: high power people 2 minutes to hormonally change and configure brain What happens if you use this on someone actually powerful? No nonverbal response-standing in social quicksand Fake it until you become it You become the people you see yourself behaving as We want to be like extraverted people Two-factor theory of emotion Ps: abbreviation for participants More narcissistic--> more aggressive even when praised and even moreso when criticized Those praised more aggressive at lower narcissism but it was a nonsignificant difference Aim lower to fix self-esteem? Effects of this? Are those who aim to see themselves in a negative light considered depressed or something similar? Self-guide, self-complexity are better for self-esteem Losing basketball game is horrible but getting a great grade is mediocre for someone who places all their self-esteem in their athletic ability Spread things we care about across many relevant domains We all fail at some point Don't put all your eggs in one basket


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