Week 1 Notes
Week 1 Notes BSCI - 30156 - 002
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BSCI - 30156 - 002
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Brown on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSCI - 30156 - 002 at Kent State University taught by Chi-hua Groff (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see ELEMENTS OF GENETICS in Biological Sciences at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Elements Of Genetics Genetics study of heredity and variation How and why organisms have certain traits and how they are passed on from parent to offspring Phenotype observable traits personality eye color etc Mendelian Genetics Gene based on a single loci This can not apply to most traits such as hair color height or human diseases Autism can be 100 loci interacting together multifactorial Multifactorial many loci39s interacting and environmental factors a acting together to cause variation in the genome Watson and Crick Won the noble prize for solving the structure of DNA The Central Dogma DNA Transcription RNA Translation Protein Karyotype 23 pairs of chromosomes 22 autosomal and one pair of sex chromosomes Monosomy of any autosomal chromosome is lethal Multiple copies of chromosomes can lead to many human syndromes Allele a variation of a gene One is inherited from your mother and one is inherited from your father Must be homologous chromosomes Homozygous identical alleles of genes 0 Tl39 or tt Heterozygous non identical alleles o Tt Traits can be changed or modi ed They are part of the phenotype Human Genome 32billion base pairs long 25000 genes 0 3 Million SNP39s 1x every 1000 o SNP single nucleotide polymorphism Any change in DNA is a mutation o Duplications deletions recombination point mutations o Mutation any altered version of a gene They provide raw material for evolution 0 Only germline mutations can be transmitted through generations 0 Most mutations have no effect on the organism they39re neutral or they are only slightly deleterious Neutral Mutations 0 Neither good or bad 0 Invisible to selection 0 Frequency is subject to quotdriftquot in the population Normally DNA replication is super accurate and correct but sometimes mutations can happen Coding DNA transcribed to make messenger RNA mRNA NonCoding DNA is not transcribed t regulates protein production and is critical for the function of the genome A lot of syndromes stem from mutations in the noncoding DNA It is the majority of our genome Every cell has the same DNA and same potential to have different functions skin cells vs eye cells Coding DNA 0 Many mutations can happen here 0 Synonymous substituents 3rCI position variation doesn39t change the amino acid 0 Replacement SNP change amino acid Functional SNP acceptable aa replacement Non functional SNP traits and diseases IGFl Locus a single allele that is a major determinant of dog sizes 0 GF insulin growth factor changes height Genotype has a huge effect on phenotype Viruses They have only 8 genes and an extremely fast mutation rate Silent and replacement mutations Memorize
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