SOC 101 Introduction Notes
SOC 101 Introduction Notes SOC 101
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Ellen Hanna on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 101 at Furman University taught by Dr. Maher in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Furman University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
What is Sociology? Peter Berger Invitation to Sociology (H1) Auguste Comte, the father of sociology Understand relationship between individual and society Definition (p. 2) Seeks patterns and regularities Looks beyond the individual to the group Interested in: dramatic events and mundane happenings The Sociological Perspective Or “Sociological Imagination” A changed angle of vision removes us from familiar experiences intellectually (culture shock -‐ geographic displacement) forces us to examine critically and objectively (value neutrality) requires a conscious effort to question the obvious From Witt: What factors affect US employment trends? (p. 7) The Sociological Perspective Operates on 2 levels (unit of analysis) macrolevel and microlevel Sociology is not common sense (often debunks myths) Social Science (H 2) (probability not certainty) Society is a temporary social product created and changed by humans. A Brief History of Sociology The Giants of Sociological Thought Auguste Comte(1798-‐1857) p.11 Father of Sociology Use scientific method to study society Major areas of investigation: social statics social dynamics The Giants of Sociological Thought Harriet Martineau (1802-‐1876) p.12 First woman sociologist Translated Comte Major works Household Education Society in America Systematic research techniques (objectivity) Wrote about government, economy, women The Giants of Sociological Thought Herbert Spencer(1820-‐1903) Social Darwinism (natural selection, survivaof the fittest, evolutionary nature of change) Politically popular; supported the status quo hands off governmental policy The Giants of Sociological Thought Karl Marx (1818-‐1883) p. 12-‐13 Radical thinker Focus on industrialization, capitalism Alienation Economic Determinism Two classes of people: Haves and H -avts Political Revolution Communist Manifesto The Giants of Sociological Thought Emile Durkheim (1858-‐1917) p. 12 Separate Academic Discipline Individuals as products of society Suicide (1897) – p. -‐12 social stability social integration Typology: altruistic, egoistic, anomic, fatalistic The Giants of Sociological Thought Max Weber(1864-‐1920) p. 13 Verstehen The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism Ideal type Historical/Comparative method Rationalization, Bureaucratization The iron cage of rationality Coming to America By late 1800s, early 1900s shift in focus to the United States University of Chicago (1890s -‐1940s) no longer ‘armchair’ “Chicago School” concern with social problems (poverty, crime, racism, etc.) More Prominent Thinkers Jane Addams(1860-‐1935) p. 14 first American social worker publicist, persuader, reformer marked beginning of welfare ideology founded Hull House many reform efforts Nobel Peace Prize (1931) More Prominent Thinkers W.E.B. Du Boi( s1868-‐1963) (pronounced “dew BOYS”) p. 14 First African American sociologist helped organize NAACP Talcott Parson (s902-‐1979) shift East after 1940s, change in focus to theorizing and information gathering most well known American theorist The Social System functionalist More Prominent Thinkers Robert K. Merton(1910-‐2003) student of Parsons middle range theories C. Wright Mills(1916-‐1962) The Promise (H 3) Intersection of history and biography Personal troubles vs. public issues Erving Goffman (1922-‐1982) p.13 dramaturgical sociology (H 12) What’ s New in Sociology? Specializations within Sociology Applied Sociology (p.18) Clinical Sociology What can I do with a Sociology degree? Sociological skills apply to a wide range of occupations Ability to observe, interpret, report patterns Analyze and interpret data Work to bring positive change Occupational Categories of Recent Sociology Majors (p. 18) Theoretical Paradigms Paradigms guide, focus, color, blind Within the sociological perspective there are multiple paradigms Three major paradigms are: (p. 15) Functionalism Conflict Theory Symbolic Interactionism See comparative table on p. 15 AND diagram on p. 21 Functionalism macro-‐level paradigm prominent in the 1940s -‐1960 Spencer, Durkheim, Parsons, Merton Society is a system or body. Many interrelated and interdependent parts fit together. Stability, harmony, balance, equilibrium Functionalism (cont.) Manifestand latent functions Dysfunctional (dies out or kills the system) Slow evolutionary change Bottom line question: What is its function? Criticisms (retrospective, conservative) Examples (prostitution, poverty) Conflict Theory Gained popularity in 1960s; macro -‐level Marx, Du Bois, Mills Society is best understood in terms of conflict, struggle and power. Main components: competition (limited resources) structured inequality revolutionary change Conflict Theory (cont.) Social order is maintained by forceor the threat of force. Bottom line question: Who benefits? Answer: The people in power. Criticisms (overlooks less controversial) Examples (prostitution, poverty) Symbolic Interactionism Weber, Goffman, Mead, Cooley micro-‐level sociology focuses on definitions of situations, shared meanings, roles and interaction patterns Reality is socially constructed and manipulated. Symbolic meanings ar im portant, they growout of relationships and can be negotiated . Examples (dollar bill) 2 Types: Ethnomethodology, Dramaturgical Sociology Symbolic Interactionism (cont.) Ethnomethodology Harold Garfinkel focus on the world “taken -‐for-‐granted” social order, shared norms and expectations, unwritten rules of behavior breach experiment (your written assignment) uncover rules just beneath the surface Symbolic Interactionism (cont.) Dramaturgical Sociology (H12) Erving Goffman “All the world’s a stage” impression management (given, given off) face saving language of the theater (front stage, back stage, actor, role, script, audience) “onion theory” of the self
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