Microbiology 201 Week 2 Notes
Microbiology 201 Week 2 Notes MICRB 201
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Spellacy on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MICRB 201 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Steven Keating in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introductory Microbiology in Microbiology at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Microbiology 201 WEEK TWO NOTES 1/20/16 Human Diseases Continued: Claviceps Plant pathogen that grows on various grains (especially rye) Causes ergot disease (also called St. Anthony’s fire) and ergotism Once was common in northern Europe if rye was found in a cool, damp place Rare today because it is easy to indicate when rye is contaminated Produces toxic alkaloids Including lysergic acid and ergotamine Bind to norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the brain Effects Vasoconstriction resulting in reduced circulation o Causes tremors, convulsions, and loss of motor control Tingling and burning in extremities o If severe could lead to death of tissue and blackening of extremities (why it is called St. Anthony’s fire) Induced uterine contractions, causing miscarriage Could be fatal, higher impact on children Hallucinations o Result of lysergic acid which is related to LSD o Effects on serotonin These symptoms in the past were interpreted as witchcraft Protozoa (Protists) Eukaryotic, single celled, nonphotosynthetic Exception: euglena Diseases caused by protists Can be difficult to treat Complex lifecycles o Disease can be found in different parts of the body at different times o Complicates treatment o May have chemical resistant stages called cyst stages Flagellated Protozoans All have flagella Example: Giardia lamblia o Water borne intestinal parasite o Arrives in water after fecal contamination o Common in hikers o Cyst stage where it is resistant to chlorine and iodine o Treatment: metronidazole (flagyl) – can take weeks to treat Example: Trichomonas o Causes vaginal infections and UTIs o Sexually transmitted o Not the same as a vaginal yeast infection o Treated with metronidazole Example: Trypanosoma o Tropical disease in Africa that causes sleeping sickness (damages brain, fatal) o Vectored by the tsetse fly Sporozoa (Apicomplexa Protozoa) Have a spore like life stage Have a stage where they may be completely non motile Example: Cryptosporidium o Water borne parasite o Arrives in water via fecal contamination o Has a chlorine resistant cyst stage o Outbreak: Milwaukee 1990s, in city water, 100,000 cases 1/22/16 Example: Plasmodium o Causes malaria, vectored by mosquitos, controlled by killing mosquitos, complex lifecycle o Common worldwide (100 million cases each year), one million deaths per year worldwide o Symptoms: severe headache, chills, fever o Treatment: discovered in the 1960s in Peru by Jesuits Noticed people using Cichona tree to treat chills Tree worked to treat malaria Called “Jesuit’s bark” By 1800s, the extract was purified and called quinine o Quinine Infects red blood cells Produces FPPIX which is toxic to the cell membrane Blocks conversion of FPPIX (toxic) to hemoglobin(nontoxic) So FPPIX kills parasite Bacteria (new ppt) All prokaryotic, 0.5 – 3.0 microns Shapes Spherical (coccus, cocci) Rods (bacilus) Spirillum (spiral shaped) – spirochete Structure Plasma membrane o Layer between cytoplasm and cell wall o Made up of phospholipids Phospholipid Bilayer o Amphipathic: part is hydrophobic (attracts water), part is hydrophilic (repels water) o Phosphate part: hydrophilic o Lipid proteins: fatty acids, carbon chains o Hydrocarbons: hydrophobic Other membrane molecules Hopanoids 5 ring carbon (similar to cholesterol) Adds stability to phospholipid bilayer o Proteins Peripheral: proteins that attach to the surface Integral: proteins that are within the membrane o Functions Barrier that retains cytoplasm Anchor point for enzymes (Peripheral proteins) that are used in respiration Selectivity restrictions some molecules are more permeable than others permeability depends on the size, shape and solubility of the molecules water soluble molecules do not cross as easily as oil soluble presence of integral proteins act as channels Osmosis Movement of water across a membrane (diffusion) 1. Movement of water depends on the solute concentration on each side of the membrane 2. Water molecules cross faster than solute molecules If 1 and 2 are true, then movement of water from high concentration of water, to low concentration of water occurs Solute concentration: water moves from high solute conc. to low solute conc.
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