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Microbiology 201 Week 2 Notes

by: Grace Spellacy

Microbiology 201 Week 2 Notes MICRB 201

Marketplace > Pennsylvania State University > Microbiology > MICRB 201 > Microbiology 201 Week 2 Notes
Grace Spellacy
Penn State
GPA 3.4
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About this Document

Claviceps, Protists, Bacteria up to osmosis
Introductory Microbiology
Dr. Steven Keating
Class Notes
Biology, micro, Microbiology, microbio, Bio, 201




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Spellacy on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MICRB 201 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Steven Keating in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introductory Microbiology in Microbiology at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 01/27/16
Microbiology 201 WEEK TWO NOTES 1/20/16 Human Diseases Continued: Claviceps  Plant pathogen that grows on various grains (especially rye)  Causes ergot disease (also called St. Anthony’s fire) and ergotism  Once was common in northern Europe if rye was found in a cool, damp place   Rare today because it is easy to indicate when rye is contaminated  Produces toxic alkaloids  Including lysergic acid and ergotamine  Bind to norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the brain  Effects   Vasoconstriction resulting in reduced circulation o Causes tremors, convulsions, and loss of motor control   Tingling and burning in extremities  o If severe could lead to death of tissue and blackening of extremities (why  it is called St. Anthony’s fire)  Induced uterine contractions, causing miscarriage  Could be fatal, higher impact on children  Hallucinations  o Result of lysergic acid which is related to LSD o Effects on serotonin  These symptoms in the past were interpreted as witchcraft Protozoa (Protists)  Eukaryotic, single celled, non­photosynthetic  Exception: euglena  Diseases caused by protists  Can be difficult to treat  Complex lifecycles  o Disease can be found in different parts of the body at different times o Complicates treatment  o May have chemical resistant stages called cyst stages  Flagellated Protozoans  All have flagella  Example: Giardia lamblia o Water borne intestinal parasite o Arrives in water after fecal contamination  o Common in hikers o Cyst stage where it is resistant to chlorine and iodine  o Treatment: metronidazole (flagyl) – can take weeks to treat  Example: Trichomonas o Causes vaginal infections and UTIs o Sexually transmitted o Not the same as a vaginal yeast infection  o Treated with metronidazole  Example: Trypanosoma o Tropical disease in Africa that causes sleeping sickness (damages brain,  fatal) o Vectored by the tsetse fly   Sporozoa (Apicomplexa Protozoa)  Have a spore like life stage  Have a stage where they may be completely non motile  Example: Cryptosporidium o Water borne parasite  o Arrives in water via fecal contamination o Has a chlorine resistant cyst stage  o Outbreak: Milwaukee 1990s, in city water, 100,000 cases 1/22/16  Example: Plasmodium o Causes malaria, vectored by mosquitos, controlled by killing mosquitos,  complex lifecycle o Common worldwide (100 million cases each year), one million deaths per  year worldwide o Symptoms: severe headache, chills, fever o Treatment: discovered in the 1960s in Peru by Jesuits  Noticed people using Cichona tree to treat chills  Tree worked to treat malaria   Called “Jesuit’s bark”  By 1800s, the extract was purified and called quinine o Quinine  Infects red blood cells  Produces FPP­IX which is toxic to the cell membrane   Blocks conversion of FPP­IX (toxic) to hemoglobin(nontoxic)  So FPP­IX kills parasite Bacteria (new ppt)  All prokaryotic, 0.5 – 3.0 microns  Shapes  Spherical (coccus, cocci)  Rods (bacilus)  Spirillum (spiral shaped) – spirochete  Structure  Plasma membrane o Layer between cytoplasm and cell wall o Made up of phospholipids  Phospholipid Bilayer o Amphipathic: part is hydrophobic (attracts water), part is hydrophilic  (repels water) o Phosphate part: hydrophilic o Lipid proteins: fatty acids, carbon chains  o Hydrocarbons: hydrophobic  Other membrane molecules      Hopanoids   5 ring carbon (similar to cholesterol)  Adds stability to phospholipid bilayer o Proteins   Peripheral: proteins that attach to the surface   Integral: proteins that are within the membrane  o Functions   Barrier that retains cytoplasm  Anchor point for enzymes (Peripheral proteins) that are used in  respiration  Selectivity restrictions ­ some molecules are more permeable than others ­ permeability depends on the size, shape and solubility of the  molecules  ­ water soluble molecules do not cross as easily as oil soluble ­ presence of integral proteins act as channels  Osmosis   Movement of water across a membrane (diffusion) 1. Movement of water depends on the solute concentration on each side of the  membrane  2. Water molecules cross faster than solute molecules  If 1 and 2 are true, then movement of water from high concentration of water, to  low concentration of water occurs  Solute concentration: water moves from high solute conc. to low solute conc.


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