Intro to Philosophy- First Two Weeks of Notes
Intro to Philosophy- First Two Weeks of Notes PHIL 1110
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Cox on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1110 at East Carolina University taught by Henry Jacoby in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see Intro to Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Intro to Philosophy Notes A philosophical view must be defended by reason. Philosophy doesn’t have definite answers. Science comes from philosophy. Philosophy is valued for questions, not answers. Science benefits everyone; philosophy affects people indirectly through the philosophers. Science is based on observations. Philosophy flourishes when people are comfortable questioning each other and ones beliefs. Philosophy often results in multiple answers. Philosophy is divided into 3 parts o Metaphysics study of the ultimate nature of reality o Epistemology study of the nature, source, and extent of human knowledge o Value theory study of values in morality, art, and politics Logic is the theory of correct reasoning; the study of arguments, and the methods used to distinguish good ones from bad ones Philosophers study concepts. A set of statements (beliefs, claims) is logically consistent if and only if it’s possible that all of the members of the set are true at the same time. Philosophical tools o Logical consistency o Logical possibility o Definitions o Arguments Logical possibility can violate laws of physics but not laws of thinking In a deductive argument, the claim is that the conclusion follows from the premises with certainty. In an inductive argument, the claim is that the conclusion follows from the premises with some degree of probability. In a valid argument, IF the premises are all true, then the conclusion must be true. o Ex: All superheroes can fly. Dr. Jacoby is a superhero. Therefore, Dr. Jacoby can fly. One can never go from true things to false things with logic. If you contradict yourself (contradicting premises but still true) it is still a valid argument. True premises with false conclusion can never be valid argument. A sound argument is a valid argument in which the premises are in fact true. Sound arguments are the best arguments. If you have two or more arguments with the same form/pattern, they’re either all valid or all invalid. Ex: If P then Q, Q therefore P. True premises with false conclusion= invalid.
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