Gen Chem 2 week 1 notes
Gen Chem 2 week 1 notes chem 10061-001
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Brown on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to chem 10061-001 at Kent State University taught by David bowers in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see general chemistry 2 in Chemistry at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
General Chemistry 2 Rules for Organic Compounds 1 Carbon always will have 4 bonds 2 Nitrogen will typically only have 3 a If 4 bonds are present it is cationic such as ammonium 3 Oxygen will typically have 2 bonds 4 Halogens only contain 1 bond Organic Chemistry study of carbon compounds Mainly deals with hydrocarbons 0 Others can be present such as HNOFPSCBr and I Organic Molecules are unique 1 Organic molecules will have structural complexity a Carbon is not energetically favorable to form ions i Does not form C4 or C439 ii Forms 4 covalent bonds 2 sigma and 2 pi bonds iii Electronegativity value is 25 which is midway on the scale iv Has the ability to catenate bond to itself 1 Only group 14 is able to catenate v Carbons small size and good orbital overlap means hybridized orbitals 1 Also small size means shorter bonds This means it has good orbital overlap and strong bonds vi Carbon to Carbon bonds are short enough that they can Pi bond This allows for a larger variety of compounds that can be formed using Carbon 1 Multiple bonds restrict rotation around a bond vii Carbon has molecular stability due to its ability to catenate 2 Organic molecules will have chemical diversity a There are millions of carbon based compounds that exist They can exist for 3 reasons i They can form stable bonds with heteroatoms 1 They will form linear and ring structures 2 They can contain single double and triple bonds ii Due to their electron density and reactivity 1 Chemical reactions will occur when an area of high electron density on one molecule meets an area of low electron density on another 2 Pi bonds or CX bonds will normally have higher reactivity Xheteroatom iii They have functional group importance 1 Functional Groups Speci c combination of atoms typically CC multiple bonds or CX bond that reacts in a characteristic way no matter what molecule it occurs in a Most reactions of organic compounds tend to happen in the functional group Recap of why Carbon is unique 0 Ability to catenate Creates stable bonds with heteroatoms Multiple bond formation 0 Can form in linear forms or ring forms Hydrocarbon an organic compound consisting of only C and H Examples Methane ethane benzene etc Alkene hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds and are referred to as saturated hydrocarbonds Formula for alkene is CnH2n2 n must be a positive integer Shape Tetrahedral Hybridization sp3 Naming Organic Compounds Pre x Root Suffix Root ls determined by how many carbons are in the longest continuous chain Suf x indicates the type of organic compound and is found after the root Pre x Identi es any group that is attached to the main chain Also tells the position of this group Steps to Naming 1 Name the longest chain of Carbons root a Longest chain of continuous carbon atoms 2 Name the type of compound based on what type of bonds you have a Single bonds ane b Double bonds ene c Triple Bonds yne 3 Name Branches groups attached to the main chain a End the branches in y b Branch names will come after the chain name When you have 2 or more branches their names must go in alphabetical order c Also specify where the branch is located along the chain Number the main chain Carbon atoms consecutively and try to make your branches have the lowest numbers
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