Week 4- Monday 2/1 notes
Week 4- Monday 2/1 notes BIOL 3040
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey Notetaker on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3040 at Clemson University taught by Christina Wells in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Biology of Plants in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Week 5: Seedless Vascular Plants: Intro Chapter 17: page 391-408 1. Evolution of Vascular Plants a. Both bryophytes and vascular plants have a similar life cycle—an alternation of heteromorphic generations—in which the gametophyte differs from the sporophyte b. Vascular plants—sporophytes are dominant c. Dominant plants in terrestrial habitats 2. Organization of the Vascular Plant Body a. Root system: which anchors the plant and absorbs water and minerals from the soil b. Shoot System: made up of the stems and leaves together, with the stems raising specialized photosynthetic organs (the leaves) to the sun c. Dermal tissue system: makes up the outer, protective covering of the plant d. Vascular tissue system: comprises the conductive tissues xylem and phloem and is embedded in the ground tissue system 3. Tracheary Elements—Tracheids and Vessel Elements: the conducting cells of the xylem a. Tracheary elements: have distinctive, lignified wall thickenings i. Provide valuable clues to the interrelationships of the different groups of vascular plants ii. General term for lignified xylem cells in vascular plants iii. Includes tracheids the only water-conducting cell in most vascular plants (other than angiosperms) 1. Tracheids provide channels for the passage of water and minerals 2. Also provide support for water stems 3. Elongated xylem cell with closed, tapering ends 4. Transport and rigidity 5. Found in relatively primitive plants b. Vessel Elements: the principal water-conducting cells in angiosperms c. Sieve Elements: conducting cells of phloem; have soft walls and often collapse after they die i. Include sieve cells and sieve tube elements (*angiosperms only) ii. Sieve Cell: elongated, slender phloem cell with tapering ends 4. Vascular Tissues- located in the Vascular Cylinders (or Steles) of Roots and Stems a. Stele: the central cylinder of the root or stem where xylem and phloem are located, sometimes contains pith i. Pith: central column of ground tissue that makes up the stele b. Protostele: the simplest and most ancient type of stele i. Consists of a solid cylinder of vascular tissue in which the phloem either surrounds the xylem or is interspersed within it c. Siphonostele: type of stele found in the stems of most species of seedless vascular plants characterized by a central pith surrounded by the vascular tissue; no leaf gaps d. Leaf traces: departure from the stem of the vascular strands leading to the leaves i. Generally marked by gaps known as leaf gaps 1. Leaf gaps: filled with parenchyma cells (thin walled plant cell of variable size of form; “general cell”) 5. Roots and Leaves Evolved in Different Ways a. Microphylls: relatively small leaves that contain only a single strand of vascular tissue i. One vein and one leaf trace ii. Found in lycophytes iii. NOT associated with a leaf gap iv. Evolved as superficial stem outgrowths called enations that later became vascularized b. Megaphylls: larger, associated with stems that have either siphonosteles or eusteles i. Larger leaf with several to many veins ii. Found in ferns, horsetails, and higher plants 6. Dominant Sporophyte a. b. Sprangium: a hollow structure in which spores are produced c. Spore mother cell: a diploid cell that undergoes meiosis to form 4 haploid cells d. Bisexual gametophyte: make both sperm and eggs e. Unisexual gametophyte: makes either sperm or eggs 7. Homosporous Plants produce only one kinds of spore, whereas Heterosporous produce two a. Homosporous: ferns, horsetails, and some lycophytes i. Only one type of spore ii. Spore produces bisexual gametophytes iii. The gametophytes have both archegonia and antheridia b. Heterospory: production of two types of spores in two different kinds of sporangia—found in some lycophytes and few ferns and all seed plants i. Two types of spores are called microspores and megaspores 1. Microspores (male gametophytes) produced in microsporangia 2. Megaspores (female gametophytes) megasporangia ii. Unisexual gametophytes 8. Lycopodiaceae (club mosses) a. Sporophytes: branching rhizome from which aerial branches (microphylls) and roots arise b. Microphylls usually spirally arranged c. Roots and stems have protostele d. Homosporous; the sporangia occur singly on the upper surface of fertile microphylls called sporophylls modified leaf or leaflike organ that bears sporangia e. Nonphotosynthetic sporophylls are grouped into a cone or strobilus (cluster of sporphylls at end of upright stalk)
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