Week 1 Notes
Week 1 Notes 3020
Popular in Fruit Crops
Popular in Agriculture and Forestry
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Encardes on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3020 at University of Georgia taught by Anish Malladi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Fruit Crops in Agriculture and Forestry at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
1-11-16 Monday, January 11, 2016 12:49 PM Introduction to Fruit Crops o Fruit Botanically: mature ovary with seed (and associated parts) Ex: apples are pseudo-fruits; flesh isn't from the ovary, ovary is the core True fruit is just that ovary Most of the strawberry is derived from the receptacle; black dots are the true fruit The developed receptacle is to attract animals to eat the fruit and disperse the seed Many vegetables are botanically fruits because they contain seed Ex: eggplant, peppers, tomatoes Study if fruit: pomology Derived from the type of fruit called a pomme 1-13-16 Wednesday, January 13, 2016 10:14 AM Use of fruit crops o Essential component of diet o Contribute vitamins and fiber o Many fruits contain antioxidants, anti-cancer agents and other components within medicinal value Called phyto-nutrients Lycopene in tomatoes and watermelons Adds the red/orange color Resveratrol in grapes Contributes to the beneficial aspects of wine Other compounds Most accumulate in the outer layer tissue like apple peel and other skins of fruit to help directly deal with stresses The rest of the fruit is sugars and fibers Meant for defense mechanisms and dealing with abiotic stress Taxonomy o Primarily used for identification of the plant (fruit crop) o Common notation consists of Genus and species information o Usually followed by abbreviated name of the person who coined it o Representation of varietal information is common for fruit crops like cultivar names Ex: Prunus persica (L.) Batsch. 'Redhaven' Origin and production information o Origin of crop and general history of production Information useful in plant breeding and crop improvement o Production information - reflects changing trends over time Ex: the US no longer produces the most apples, China does Botanical description o Plant description Plant growth habit Leaf form Leaf shape Parts of a flower o Peduncle holds the flower up and connects the flower to the rest of the plant o Receptacle Right above the peduncle Houses the rest of the floral organs Slightly bulbous Becomes the fleshy portion of some fruits like strawberries o Sepals (calyx) and petals (corolla) First and second whorl Petals attract pollinators o Stamen (androecium) Anther Filament Third whorl o Pistil (gynoecium) Stigma Style Ovary (also can be called the carpel if it’s a simple ovary instead of compound) In a compound ovary there are several compartments which are the carpels Fourth whorl 1-15-16 Friday, January 15, 2016 10:03 AM Flower terminology o Complete flower All four floral parts (whorls) are present within the flower o Incomplete flower One or more of the floral organs are absent Can be missing any whorl, including petals or sepals o Perfect flower Stamens and pistils are present within the same flower o Imperfect flower Either the stamen or pistil is missing Male flowers are staminate and female flowers are pistillate Monoecious Staminate and pistillate flowers on a single parent Ex: maize, pecans, walnut Dioecious Staminate and pistillate flowers are on different parents Ex: most papaya, kiwifruit Dichogamy The male and female flowers open at different times Protoandry is when the males open first and protogyny is when the female flowers open first This causes a monecious plant to function as dioecious Ex: pecans Types of floral organ arrangement o Inferior ovary Epigynous flower The ovary is present at the basal part and the rest of the floral organs begin showing up above the ovary Ex: blueberries o Superior ovary Hypogynous flower The rest of the floral organs start showing up from below the ovary Ex: tomatoes o Used to classify fruit types o Perigynous flower The other floral organs fuse to form a cup-like structure that surrounds the base of the ovary Ex: peaches, cherries, and other stone fruits Inflorescence o Multiple flowers that originate from a single bud o In some situations each flower can become and fruit or the whole inflorescence can fuse together to produce a fruit Blueberries produce individual fruits and pineapples fuse together from one inflorescence o They always have a specific arrangement o Determinate inflorescence have terminally buds that mature before the auxiliary flower o Indeterminate inflorescence have more mature flowers at the base and less mature flowers at the top Pollination o Transfer of pollen from the anther to the surface of the stigma o Pollinators: agents which bring about the act of pollination Wind pollination Insect pollination Bats/birds Bees Most common Flies Carrion flies Attracted to the smell of rotting flesh
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