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Week 2 Notes

by: Nicole Encardes

Week 2 Notes 3020

Nicole Encardes
GPA 3.32

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About this Document

Factors Affecting Pollination, Fertilization, Incompatibility, Parthenocarpy
Fruit Crops
Anish Malladi
Class Notes
horticulture, fruits, pollination, fertilization
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Encardes on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3020 at University of Georgia taught by Anish Malladi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Fruit Crops in Agriculture and Forestry at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 01/27/16
1-20-16 Wednesday, January 20, 2016 10:13 AM  Factors that affect pollination o Rain  Messes up wind pollination  Lowers bee activity  Hydrates pollen and makes it hard for is to dehisce o Amount of sunlight  Great for bee activity o Temperature  ~18-20 C is best o Availability of pollen and the presence of pollinators  Fertilization o Pollen germinates on the stigmatic surface  This produces a pollen tube  Pretty quick reaction o Pollen tube grows towards the ovary  The pollen grain splits into two nuclei  One is the vegetative (or tube) and one is the generative  The vegetative nucleus controls the pollen tube a metabolism  The generative splits into two nuclei again o One generative nucleus fuses with the egg nucleus  This is the one that forms the zygote o Another generative nucleus fuses with the two polar nuclei  This gives rise to a triploid tissue that's called the endosperm  Has 3 copies of the genome and becomes part of the seed too  Provides to nutrition to the developing zygote o Double fertilization is the two different fusions  Effective Pollination Period (EPP) o Period during bloom when pollination can result in fertilization o Factors effecting EPP  Receptivity of the stigma  Pollen tube growth  Life-span of ovule  Others (nutritional status of plant - nitrogen)  Self and cross pollination o Self  Seed set possible with pollination from the same parental source  Can be from the same flower or a flower on the same plant but must have to same genetic makeup  Ex: peaches o Cross  Seed set reduced if pollen from the same source  There's a compatibility barrier  Often requires pollen from a genetically distinct source  Ex: another plant  Fruit crops such as apples often require a pollen donor (pollinizer)  In apples this doesn't cause a difference in fruit but a difference in seeds so the plant that would germinate from those fruits wouldn't be true to type  Incompatibility o Lack of fertilization due to negative interaction between pollen and the gynoecium o Self-incompatibility: will not fertilize when pollen is from the same variety/cultivar  Even if pollen from the same cultivar and different genetics lands on the stigma it still wouldn't be fertilized o Cross-incompatibility: will not fertilize with a different cultivar with similar genetics o Importance  Ensures genetic diversity - prevents inbreeding issues  Needs special attention in fruit production  Incompatible varieties in the same orchard result in poor fruit set  Timing of bloom of pollinizer and cultivar need to be similar  Crabapples used often because they have a prolonged bloom period 1-22-16 Friday, January 22, 2016 10:11 AM  Pollination and fertilization o Seed set drives fruit growth and development o Signal from seed essential for stimulation of fruit growth  Fruit essential for the next generation o Nature of the signal is still unclear (maybe GAs)  The signal lets the surrounding tissue start growing and developing into a sink in a process called fruit set  Inefficient seed set results in lop-sided fruit o When you have incomplete seed set o Ex: apples can have up to 10 seeds but if there are less the apple can be misshapen  Parthenocarpy o Fruit set without fertilization and seed set o Economically beneficial - seedless fruits  Seedless oranges, watermelons o Stimulative parthenocarpy: fruit set requires pollination (stimulatory signal) - melons o Vegetative parthenocarpy: fruit set does not require pollination - mandarins o Inducible by external application of plant growth regulators - GAs


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