Childhood Development Notes Week 2
Childhood Development Notes Week 2 PSYC 3030
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by csutter on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3030 at Bowling Green State University taught by Marie Tisak in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
1/18/16 Monday-NO CLASS 1/20/16 Wednesday Ch. 2 Theories (Cont.) A. Social Cognitive Theory a. Albert Bndura i. Rewards and benefits ii. Observational learning iii. Cognitive process B. Dynamic Systems Perspective a. “layers” i. No overlap until physical development b. Physical, cognitive emotional/social c. As development increases, all of the ‘layers’ start to overlap and develop together C. Ecological Systems Theory a. Urie Bronfenbrenner b. Individual -> microsystem i. Immediate family ii. Childcare/school c. Micro -> mesosystem i. School/family/peers ii. How these factors affect the individual d. Exosystem i. Indirect factors to development 1. Parents’ work e. Macrosystem i. Indirect/direct factors 1. Laws 2. Customs 3. Holidays f. Age i. Different ages of the child show different amounts of influences from the systems. 1/22/16 Friday Ch. 3 Studying Children (Research Methods) I. Developmental Research Designs A. Cross Sectional a. Children from different age groups are studied at the same time i. study how well they speak ii. study the effects of a teaching method iii. Study their abilities to solve problems/puzzles 1. 6, 8, 10 year olds at the same time (in groups) b. doesn’t show individual development B. Longitudinal Study a. the same children at different ages b. shows individual development c. costly 1. time and money d. lose participants e. can cause bias f. Microgenetic Longitudinal Study 1. same children tested over a span of hours, days, or weeks (short-term) C. Cross-Sequential Design a. Combines cross-sectional and longitudinal designs b. study groups of ages, but study the same groups over time c. shows individual and group development 1. ‘best way’ II. Testing Universals of Development A. Cross-Cultural Studies a. Comparison of children from different cultures and backgrounds i. Children in the U.S. vs Italy (are the same developmental milestones there?) b. Can use cross-sectional and sequential studies III. Designs A. Observational Studies a. Naturalistic Observation i. In the field or natural environment where behavior happens ii. School/home b. Children may act differently with a new person in their environment (at first) c. Can create bias i. Third party needed to do observation w/o knowledge of hypothesis d. Parents may act differently (in home) e. Structured observation i. Laboratory situation set up to evoke behavior of interest 1. Dropping pencils -> does the child help pick them up? f. Event sample i. Focus only on a specific behavior g. Time sampling i. Focus on a behavior within a specific period of time 1. Will a child do ‘behavior’ in 10 seconds? h. Checklist i. Using a prepared list of behaviors 1. Mark if the behavior is present or absent B. Interviews a. Clinical i. Flexible, conversational style ii. Open-ended answers b. Structured i. Each child is asked the same questions in the same way ii. Survey IV. Reliability and Validity A. Measure Reliability a. Study should have consistent results B. Interrater Reliability a. Consistence of findings among different observers C. Validity a. Test measures what it is intended to measure