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Chemistry 101 Chapter 2 Notes

by: Erryn Trottier

Chemistry 101 Chapter 2 Notes CHEM 101

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Chemistry > CHEM 101 > Chemistry 101 Chapter 2 Notes
Erryn Trottier
GPA 2.4

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About this Document

These notes cover most of chapter 2 and will be on test 1.
Generl Chemistry 1
Professor John McDuffie
Class Notes
Chemistry 101
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erryn Trottier on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Professor John McDuffie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 190 views. For similar materials see Generl Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 01/27/16
Chapter 2 Measurement, Problem Solving and The Mole Concept 01/25/2016  Measurement, Problem Solving and the Mole concept  Units are quantities used to specify measurements which are critical in chemistry  The two most common units are the Metric system (most common) and English system (US)  Scientists use the International System of Units (SI), which is based on the metric system  Reliability of Measurements  Accuracy: refers to how close the measured value is to the actual value  Precision: refers to how close a series of measurements are to one another or how reproducible they are  Measurements are said to be o Precise if they are consistent with one another; o Accurate only if they are close to the actual value  Ex: the first 3 digits are certain and they last digit is estimated : 5.213  Significant Figures o Numbers used to reflect precision o The precision of a measurement depends on instrument used o Exact numbers have an unlimited number of significant figures  Density = mass/volume (d)=m/V o An intensive physical property : it does not depend on the amount of substance o The physical properties of mass and volume that determine a substance’s density are extensive: they are dependent on amount o Densities of liquids and gases are affected by temperature  Energy o The capacity to do work o Work is defined as the action of a force through a distance ▯ ▯  Energy  Kinetic energy- energy of motion  Potential energy- energy associated with the position or composition of an object  Thermal energy – energy of temperature (a type of kinetic energy)  Energy Units- SI unit joule (J) o English unit (cal) o The dietary unit is the calorie (Cal), which is equal to 1000 calories or 1 kilocalorie (kCal)  An exothermic process releases energy from the system to the surroundings (-)  An endothermic process takes in energy from the surroundings into the system (+) ▯  Calculations and Solving Chemical Problems  Unit conversion problems  Using units as a guide to solve problems is called dimensional analysis  Units should always be included in calculations  Dimensional Analysis  A unit equation is a statement of two equivalent quantities such as: o 2.54 cm= 1 inch  What is a Mole?  A mole is a scientist’s “baker dozen”  A mole (mol) of anything contains 6.02214 x 10^23 pieces o EX: 1 mol of marbles corresponds to 6.022 x 10^23 marbles  6.022 x 10^23 is Avagadro’s Number  The value of the mole is equal to the number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure C-12 o 12 g C= 1 mol= 6.022 x 10^23  Mole Conversions 1 mol atom/ 6.022 x 10^23 or 6.022 x 10^23 / 1 mol atom The mass of 1 mol of atoms of an element is the molar mass Ex: 26.98 g Al= 1 mol Al = 6.022 x 10^23 atoms Al o 12.01 g C= 1 mol C = 6.022 x 1-^23 atoms C ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯


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