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Phonological Disorders (CDS392) week 1 notes

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by: Alicia Notetaker

Phonological Disorders (CDS392) week 1 notes CDS 392

Marketplace > University at Buffalo > CDS 392 > Phonological Disorders CDS392 week 1 notes
Alicia Notetaker
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About this Document

These notes are from the first two classes of the semester. The notes for the second class might not match exactly with the number slide because the lecture was not posted on Unlearns yet. Once it ...
Phonological disorders: Diagnosis and management
Joshua Benn
Class Notes
Phonological Disorders, CDS 392, Spring 2016, Speech and Hearing sciences




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"The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Alicia for help in class!"
Shana Nader

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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Notetaker on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDS 392 at University at Buffalo taught by Joshua Benn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views.


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The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Alicia for help in class!

-Shana Nader


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Date Created: 01/27/16
Alicia Fursich Phonological Disorders Lecture 1 Introduction to Phonological Disorders CDS 392 Spring 2016 (SLIDE 1)- speech sound disorder (SSD) (SIDE 2)- (DELAY) lisp: TH instead of S - (DELAY) gliding: W instead of R - (DEVIANT) lateralization of sibilants-S or Z (SLIDE 3)- many resolved in preschool years - sometimes behaviors persist into adulthood - focus of this course (CDS 392) is on children - if behaviors persist, could cause problems with reading (SLIDE 4)- Otitis Media: problems with hearing, perceiving and producing speech sounds - motor issues: connection between motor cortex and speech organs - organic: speech organ that is abnormal (ankyloglossia=tongue tied) (SLIDE 5)- **all important information is on slide** (SLIDE 6)- syllabus Typical Aspects of Articulation CDS 392 Spring 2016 (SLIDE 1)- speech mechanism is divided into 3 parts, below larynx, larynx, above larynx - below larynx: lungs, vocal chords, trachea - above larynx: tongue, velum, lips, nasal cavity - 3 parts of speech mechanism: 1) Sublaryngeal system: (lungs) pulmonic egressive airsteam 2) Laryngeal: larynx houses vocal folds of glottis- determine whether voiced or voiceless.  Voiced = phonation, myoelastic aerodynamic principles (bernouli effect: when air starts to move through vocal folds, increases air flow, decreases pressure, causes them to close shut only for instant because pressure under vocal folds push them open)  Voiceless = folds are too far apart to vibrate 3) Supralryngeal: resonating chamber for noise coming from folds (SLIDE 2) **all important info is on slide** (SLIDE 3)- noise source for vowels: vocal folds, vocal fold vibrating is the only thing happening -glides: -nasals: vocal folds -fricatives: frication, turbulent air rushing through channel (SLIDE 4)- Vowels: nothing inhibiting flow of air from lungs out of vocal tract - move tongue up and down and front and back for vowels (controls vowel formants) once you adjust vowel formants it gives you diff vowel qualities - some vowels have lip rounding - vowel formant: when you produce a vowel you have vocal folds buzzing and head=resonance chamber, so depending on shape and length of vocal tract certain frequencies will get amplified (SLIDE 5)- **IPA chart ** - left : front of mouth, right: back of mouth - dipthongs: ai, oi, au (SLIDE 6)- **all important info is on slide** (SLIDE 7)- “i” is similar to “y”, “u” similar to “w” - “hod”: low vowel, back bc highest part of tongue is in back (SLIDE 8)- (only English symbols) - bilabial: front of mouth - glottal: farthest back in mouth - from top to bottom, arranged from highest degree of constriction on top and lowest degree of constriction on bottom - glides are almost like vowels - sonorants: usually have formant structure (noise source is vocal folds and only vocal folds, don’t have frication noise in addition) - obstruents: might have voicing but accompanied by some other noise source (SLIDE 9) **all important info is on slide (SLIDE 10)- “w” is bilabial but also has velar component, like back vowel - when you make back vowel, dorsum comes to velum (SLIDE 11 [Articulation of glides])- apex of tongue and alveolar ridge, opening on sides of tongue are larger and don’t cause frication so not obstruent -rhotic is not always palatal it can be alveolar -R: tongue pushed down and toward bottom teeth, or to make retroflex (SLIDE 12) -any air from lungs goes out through nose bc there is a constriction at mouth -M sounds diff from N bc mouth is acting as resonating chamber, and it is shaped differently for each sound (SLIDE 13) -bilabial plosive on left - bilabial nasal on right -nasal: velopharyngeal port is opened because velum is lowered -P or B on left depending on whether vocal folds are vibrating (voiced=B or voiceless=P) (SLIDE 14) –“h”: glottal fricative (SLIDE 15) -all plosives have shutting off of airflow and build up of pressure in oral cavity -aspiration: “h”, as we make release we make “h” and then move onto next sound, ex) to=t(h)o, when vocal folds are close enough together to cause turbulence for air passing through but not vibrating (SLIDE 16) **all important info is on slide** (SLIDE 17 {Affricates}) -combination of stop and fricative, stop and slow release -release from plosive is closer, short period of time where narrow channel causes frication (ch) (SLIDE 18) -ng (voiced velar nasal) (SLIDE 19) -j (voiced palatal glide) (SLIDE 20) –f or v (labiodental fricative) (SLIDE 21) –n (voiced alveolar nasal) (SLIDE 22) -b or p (voiced/voiceless bilabial stop) (SLIDE 23) -blue line still air flowing by tongue- voiced alveolar lateral (l) (SLIDE 24) -s or z (voiced/voiceless alveolar fricative) (SLIDE 25) -alveopalatal sh or g (as in genre) (SLIDE 26) -k or g (voiced/voiceless velar stop) (SLIDE 27) –M (voiced bilabial nasal) (SLIDE 28) -t or d (voiced/voiceless alveolar stop) (SLIDE 29) -w (voiced bilabial glide) (SLIDE 30) -blue line: air coming out sides of tongue dark “l” (at end of word like trouble or tall) (SLIDE 31) -r retroflex _____________________________________________________________________ ________________________ Phonological Disorders Lecture 2 The Profession of Audiology (the notes for this lecture may not match exactly with the number slide. The professor did not put up the lecture slides on UBlearns yet so I could not check if I matched everything up correctly with my notes from class. Once he puts the lecture up I will correct any mistakes) (SLIDE 1) -Suprasegmentals: now aware of, don’t mark them with any letters for our language, below our consciousness (SLIDE 2) -lexical stress: word level stress - intonation: what kind of pitches over a word or utterance - -junctures: separations between sounds during production of speech (SLIDE 3) –citation form: saying one word in isolation -period separates syllables (SLIDE 4) changing word meaning from noun to verb -nouns: stress on first syllable -verbs: stress on second syllable (SLIDE 5)- **all important info is on slide** (SLIDE 6) FO=pitch - non-stressed syllables have schwa, stressed syllables never have schwas - stressed syllables you can get the whole range of vowels except schwa & aspiration and plosives at beginning of words (SLIDE 7) – can move around in sentence depending on context of utterance -always plants itself on primary stress syllable, always coincides with lexical stress -not all lexical stress has phrasal stress, but all phrasal stress has lexical stress (SLIDE 8) –speech act: difference between question and statement (intonation) (SLIDE 9) punctuation often coincides with intonation but not always -separating technique for this example is a pause (comma) (SLIDE 10) **all important info is on slide** (SLIDE 11) **all important info is on slide** (SLIDE 12) **all important info is on slide** (SLIDE 13) tactile: touching or feeling -feedback of nature about contract between articulators (speech organ) -where is contact, how hard is pressure, and timing of contact (how long does this contact last) -air pressure as it contacts inside of vocal tract at diff. cavities (subglottal, superglottal) (SLIDE 14) kinesthetic: movement, proprioceptive: position (SLIDE 15) **all important info is on slide** (SLIDE 16) (language) (SLIDE 17) **all important info is on slide** (SLIDE 18) (sign) to understand sign have to know pertains to driving, yellow signs pertain to warning, arrow means road (the road is curvy up ahead) -different way of life-will not know what it means -language is a sign in the same way (SLIDE 19) **all important info is on slide** (SLIDE 20) if someone says these words and you don’t know language you will be just as confused as if you were seeing sign for the first time -have to learn culture to understand that (SLIDE 21) **all important info is on slide** (SLIDE 22) we store words in our head according to phonemes (SLIDE 23) minimal pairs (SLIDE 24) phonetic form is with more detail (SLIDE 25) **all important info is on slide** (SLIDE 26) **all important info is on slide** (SLIDE 27) lip rounding (labialization) (SLIDE 28) need to move from point A to point B (SLIDE 29) delay in stopping gestures: carrying over from one sound to another (PROGRESSIVE) -planned early: do stuff early because of next sound (REGRESSIVE)—lip rounding of S in SO before you even get to O (SLIDE 30) **all important info is on slide** (SLIDE 31) children first learning language won’t get all these shortcuts right away (SLIDE 32) **all important info is on slide** (SLIDE 33) (adults vs children) trying to line up what brain and muscles are trying to do -aim to pronounce like adults but don’t really reach it (SLIDE 34) everyone in any language has phonological processes -no allophones in lexicon, only phonemes (SLIDE 35) coronal means sound is made with tip of tongue -anterior: involves front of mouth


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