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Bio 102 Notes Week Three

by: annazeberlein

Bio 102 Notes Week Three BIOL102

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This covers Size Limit through Biogeochemical Cycles, the week of 1/25-1/29.
Concepts/Apps in Biology II
Dr. Heather Pritchard
Class Notes
Biology, biology 102
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by annazeberlein on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL102 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Heather Pritchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Concepts/Apps in Biology II in Biology at College of Charleston.

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Date Created: 01/27/16
Bio Notes Week 3 - Size limit o Carrying capacity  Maximum number of individuals that can be sustained indefinitely by sustainable environmental resources (food and water)  Only enough resources to support a certain number of individuals in the community  Population size slightly above or below carrying capacity (the sustainable amount of individuals)  Resources are generally stable, but if the environment changes, so will the carrying capacity and the size of the population will suffer (ex: potato famine in Ireland)  Carrying capacity and limiting factors  Overshoot will lead to a crash (ex: caribou on an island with a wealth of resources ran out and they died off quickly)  The human population  Currently about 7 billion people (estimated we would reach 7 billion on 2013, met in 2012 due to exponential growth)  Why the increase o Medical and technological advances  6 billion in 1999, estimated 8.9 billion in 2050  Earth’s carrying capacity  Anywhere from 4 billion to 16 billion is the estimate, but have we already exceeded our carrying capacity? o Can we do it? o Will technology survive?  Stabilize the world’s population  Birth control o But, there are cultural issues, the status of women can be a factor in getting birth control, along with the limited availability of family planning and restraining government policies (like China’s one child law)  Total Fertility Rates have decreased, but not enough to reduce population size o In 1950, TFR was 6.5 o Today the TFR is 2.6 o We need it to be at 2.1 (replacement value)  Economic impacts o Birth rates and death rates decrease  No growth or negative growth  Ex: baby boomers as an aging generation, this makes the population top heavy, causing issues with social security  Marriage encouraged to increase number of families  Resource elimination  Highest in industrialized nations o The US uses 9.4 hectares per capita in terms of our ecological footprint – the world average is 2.7  What can we do? o Buy local (less transportation and use of fossil fuels) o Recycle, duh o Drive less (bike, walk, especially easy in Charleston) o Don’t litter, duh o Eat less meat (1 pound of meat = 2500 gallons of water, 12 pounds of grain, 35 pounds of top soil and the equivalent of one gallon of gas)  No population can expand indefinitely! Communities - all living species in a given habitat - community ecology o species interactions influence population dynamics, evolution, and biodiversity - community structure o the abundance of species in a habitat o influenced by  environment (climate, resources, disturbances)  species interactions  coevolution – interacting species influence microevolution (predator vs prey or bees and flowers)  commensalism – one species is helped, the other has no effect (barnacles on whales)  mutualism – both species are helped (clownfish in an anemone)  interspecifc competition – both species are harmed (trees in a forest, one grows taller than the other to get sunlight, constantly competing)  predation, herbivory, parasitism – one is helped, the other is harmed (parasites like tapeworms) o predator-prey relationships/interactions  predator and prey numbers change in cycles  cycles can be affected by predator behavior (an alternate prey), availability of other prey, carrying capacity o coevolution of predators and prey  both exert selective pressures on one another  prey develops better defenses, resulting in predators becoming better hunters  prey defenses  camouflage (caterpillars that look like bird poop)  mimicry (beetles that look like hornets)  chemical defenses (poison dart frog)  startle coloration (moth that looks like it has eyes)  predator adaptations  better hunters o keen senses (sight, smell) o speed and agility  structures that enhance catching prey (aggressive mimicry, like angler fish) - Ecological succession o changes in a community structure caused by:  disturbances  species action: habitat alteration  species introduction (can be natural or unnatural) o primary succession  begins from a major disturbance (ex: volcanic eruption) leaving a barren habitat without soil  building from nothing, allowing for a pioneering species – the first species to colonize (ex: lichen) o secondary succession  moderate disturbance, there is still soil left (ex: a forest fire)  increase in biodiversity, boom of new species  one species will eventually overtake and decrease biodiversity o species interaction and community instability  keystone species: large effect on community structure (a species that helps maintain structure in the community, ex: otters consuming species that could overtake) o introduced and invasive species  exotic species or nonnative species alter habitats, outcompete and displace native species (ex: rabbits in Australia, they didn’t have a natural predators there, so they Australians tried to build a fence to keep them from spreading, but it’s not guaranteed)  kudzu! Native to Japan, brought over to help with erosion, but it just took over o human activities threaten community stability  accelerate rates of extinction and reduce biodiversity  species introductions (kudzu)  overharvesting and poaching  habitat loss o urban sprawl o pollution (will result in a decrease in certain species)  temperature changes  indicator species (ex: amphibians indicate pollution in aquatic environments) Ecosystems - the relationship of communities with their environment (abiotic factors) through a one way energy flow and a nutrient cycling - Food chains (visual energy flow) o Visual energy and nutrient flow through trophic levels (feeding levels) o Energy flow is one way  From producers to consumers  90% energy loss at each feeding level  producers contain the most calories (energy), but we can only consume about a tenth of those calories o food web  interconnected food chains  shows how the ecosystem could respond to a change in the community structure - biogeochemical cycles o water or a nutrient moves from an environmental reservoir, through organisms, then back to the environment  carbon  water  nitrogen  phosphorus o the carbon cycle   most carbon is locked in rocks, oceans, and terrestrial areas  natural movement is from reservoirs to air to food webs and back o the greenhouse effect   human activities add more greenhouse gases to the atmosphere than can be removed (carbon is the element we have the most control over)  carbon dioxide, CFCs, methane, nitrous oxide  all these lead to pollution, which appears as a haze over large cities, including Charleston, which can mean that some days are worse than others to go outside and simply breathe o the water cycle   watershed replenishes evaporated water  a global water crisis  humans are disrupting the water cycle o pollution of groundwater drinking supplies  contaminate aquatic ecosystems, driving species, like amphibians declining to the point of extinction o water overdrafts from aquifers (saltwater intrusion in the soil, which eventually makes its way to the aquifers)  80% used for unsustainable farming practices  big money people are buying aquifers so as the freshwater in the world depletes, people will be forced to buy their water from these people who are just trying to get more money o desalinization of seawater increases freshwater supplies, but uses fossil fuels o nitrogen cycles   80% nitrogen is in the atmosphere  plants rely on nitrogen fixation (soil bacteria) to convert nitrogen into a usable form  ammonium  nitrates  denitrification – some bacteria returns to the atmosphere  disruption by human activities  adding excessive nitrogen to the ecosystems o greenhouse gases – fossil fuel burning forms nitric acid rain (kills necessary species in forests, weakens eggshells so offspring can’t survive) o fertilizer application  strips soil of ions  agricultural nitrogen pollution o only 1/3 of nitrogen applied to plants is absorbed. Nitrogen run off creates “dead zones” in bodies of water by depleting oxygen needed for plant and animal lives. o there is a dead zone the size of New Jersey in the Gulf of Mexico o the EPA blames current farm practices for 70 % of the pollution in the nation’s rivers and streams


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