Anthropology Week 2
Anthropology Week 2 2597
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Metzgar on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2597 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Professor Ehrensal in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
*Evolutionism Continued* Lewis Henry Morgan and The Ancient Society (1877) -Believed in unilinear evolutionism -All humans lived in savagery: -Used stone tools -Hunters and gatherers, semi-nomadic -Some move from savagery to barbarism -Beginning of metallurgy -Crops, domesticated animals -Villages, some hierarchy -Some achieve civilization -Iron tools -Advent of cities -Invention of writing -Rise of kingdoms Later Evolutionism -After the publication of The Origin of the Species (Darwin 1859) and The Descent of Man (Darwin 1871) cultural and technological differences between groups were taken to infer biological (racial) differences between groups. -Evolutionism becomes racist and used to justify colonialism and imperialism Responses to Evolutionism in the 20th Century Franz Boas and The Development of American Anthropology -Born in Germany -Trained in Geography at a German University -Does fieldwork in Alaska and has contact with Inuits -Tries to get a job as an Ethnographer once returning to Germany -period of rising anti-semitism -comes to the US to find a job in New York -Winds up at the Museum of Natural History as the curator as well as a job at columbia -Develops a Department of Anthropology at Columbia University and “reinvents anthropology” Boasian Anthropology -Focus on anti-racism *culture is learned, it’s not biological -Holism and the four-field approach -Historical Particularism/Rejection of Evolution → studying specific peoples Cultural Relativism: We need to describe a culture in its own terms in order to properly understand it. “Race” -Used to use it in the way that we use the term ethnicity today -Shifts to being a biological category Racial Classification: The attempt to assign humans to discrete categories purportedly based upon common ancestry. (Focus has been on phenotypes of groups) What’s Wrong with Race? -There is more genetic variation within ‘racial groups’ than between the different groups -Physical traits that occur with ‘race’ occur gradually over space (clines) *you can’t put the world into discrete categories -Humans are a single species The Social Construction of Race -Race is a social category Hypodescent: The social practice of taking an offspring of a mixed background and assigning it to the lower social status of the two backgrounds. ex) Halle Berry, Barack Obama, Jessica Alba, Mariah Carey *Race is a social category, not a biological category* Example: Japan-”intrinsic racism” -You’re either pure Japanese or “other” -Aboriginal Ainu (original inhabiting peoples) -Okinawans -Outcast Burakumin -equivalent to untouchables -biologically the same as pure Japanese -Children of mixed marriages -Immigrants (especially Koreans) Fluidity of Categories -Brazil→ 40+ categories -phenotype -lifestyle (urban/rural) -Latin America (more broad) -Indio (Indian) -Mestizo (Mixed) -Blanco (White) *economic based to some degree Ethnography -Focuses on an intensive study of “the here and the now” -Attempts to understand the world from the Natives views -Extended period of living with the Natives -Study an identifiable place -Observation and participant observation
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