Exam234Notes.pdf CL_HUM 1060 - 01
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Classical Mythology Exam 2 The Olympians: Aphrodite (9/17) Birth of Aphrodite Castration of Ouranos, foam, etc. Also referred to as (supposedly where she came onto shore): o Cythereia (from Cythera) o Cypria, Cypris or Cyprogenes (from Cyprus) o Paphian Aphrodite (from Paphos, a city on Cyprus) Sometimes lifted literally, out of the water Other times she rides a seashell with dolphins ▯ ▯ Attributes of Aphrodite Goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, sex, nudity Cf. Athena, and her “androgynous compromise” ▯ ▯ Relationship with Zeus Aphrodite’s relationship with other Olympians Zeus and Dione (lady-god; a Titan) o Alternate version of birth; her parents Aphrodite Ourania o Created from the sky, purity o Celestial love o Fully clothed, turtle symbol; wet clothes Aphrodite Pandemos (all the people) o Sacred and profane love o Poetic love of Sappho Always depicted as young; not really a part of the Cosmogony ▯ ▯ Aphrodite, Hephaistos and Ares Marriage of Aphrodite and Hephaistos o Arranged by Zeus o Marries him, despite the love between her and Ares Relationship with Ares o Children: Harmonia Phobos Deimos Eros? ▯ ▯ Aphrodite and Eros Eros (Desire) as a primal force (from Theogony) Eros as the son of Aphrodite and Ares o Roman Cupid o Handsome youth; baby with wings? ▯ ▯ Cupid and Psyche Represents the union between love/desire and the soul 2 ndCE Roman author Apuleius; folkloric elements o Cupid/Eros, Psyche = “soul” Psyche, a mortal princess raised for her beauty o Psyche’s “bridegroom” o Aphrodite becomes jealous o Psyche is thrown off a cliff to be married to a snake, which really is Cupid in disguise; his identity is revealed via a candle and has to chase after him In the meantime, Aphrodite sets impossible tasks, but Psyche and Cupid are eventually reunited Psyche becomes mother to Voluptas (Pleasure) ▯ ▯ Aphrodite and Adonis Adonis – god of beauty and desire o probably began as a human Found in Bion’s Hymn to Aphrodite Aphrodite protects him as a baby, hands him to Persephone (wife of Hades) o He matures, and Aphrodite falls in love o Adonis was a hunter, and dies (killed by a bore, confusion of which god sent it) o Returns to Persephone in the underworld ▯ ▯ Significance of Adonis Annual festival celebrates annual cycles of death and rebirth o Significance of castration, Persephone Goddess and consort motif o Powerful mother goddess and mortal lover the mortals purpose is to die and be reborn o Cycle of death and rebirth o Story seen elsewhere: Isis and Osiris (Egyptians) Ishtar and Tammuz (Sumerians) Astarte and Adonis (Phoenicians) Cybele and Attis (Phrygians) ▯ ▯ Aphrodite and Anchises Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite A prince of Dardania (near Troy) Aphrodite’s boasting about her power over the other gods o Except for Athena, Artemis and Hestia Seduction of Anchises o Aineias (Aeneas) o He was tending his field, she shows up and wants intercourse regrets sleeping with her when he discovers she is a goddess ▯ ▯ Other Stories of Goddesses and Mortals Eos (Dawn) and Tithonos o Immortality vs. Eternal Youth o Her lover was granted immortality, but not eternal youth Pygmalion and Galatea o Pygmalion, a sculptor who has never been in love o Aphrodite decides to teach him to love the sculpture that comes to life ▯ ▯ The Olympians: Apollo (9/19) ▯ Complex Identity Truth and prophecy Healing and medicine Music Justice Moderation – the Golden Mean Towns and communiites The sun: o Phoibos (“shining”) o Helios/Sol (“the sun”) Kouros (a beardless, athletic youth) “Prince” of the Olympians? ▯ ▯ Birth of Apollo Homeric Hymn to Apollo o aitiological Leto (Roman – Latona) conceives twins: Apollo and Artemis (Roman – Diana) Hera becomes jealous, so all the lands must reject Leto o born on the small island of Delos The goddesses who attends the birth o Eilithyia and Hera; Iris Nicknamed: “far-darter”, “bearer of the bow” ▯ ▯ Delphi Foundation of the sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi Python o A chthonic dragon who lived in Delphi o Apollo shoots him with his bow and arrows o Nicknamed: “Pytho”, “Pythians” Omphalos Pythian Games o Athletic and musical competitions Pythian Oracle o Colonization (foundation of settlements) o Wars and treaties ▯ ▯ Apollo and Prophecy Pythian Oracle o Tripod o Bay or laurel leaves? Sulphar fumes? Hyginus: Cassandra o Trojan princess who rejects Apollo’s advances o Cursed with prophetic insight, but never to be believed ▯ ▯ Apollo and Music Apollo depicted with a lyre or cithara o Homeric Hymn; dance party on Mt. Olympus The Muses ▯ ▯ Apollo and Marsyas Marsyas – a satyr who challenges Apollo to a musical competition o Competition juged by the Muses o Apollo skins Marsyas alive ▯ ▯ Loves of Apollo Youth – Apollo does not have a permanent consort (hookup) Love affairs tend to end badly o e.g. Cassandra ▯ ▯ Apollo and Hyacinthos Lucian: Hermes and Apollo discuss the death of Hyacinthos Zephyros (“the wet wind”) Dialogue: o Hermes: Why are you depressed, Apollo? o Apollo: Because I’m so unlucky in love, Hermes. o Hermes: You knew you’d chosen a boyfriend who was mortal. So don’t be upset because he died. ▯ ▯ Apollo and Daphne Daphne: a nymph devoted to chastity Pursued by Apollo Asks Zeus to transform her into a laurel tree to escape him and humanity ▯ ▯ Apollo and Coronis Coronis: mother of Asclepios, unfaithful to Apollo The white crow left to protect her; cursed by Apollo and feathers scorched: why all crows are black-feathered (aitiology) ▯ ▯ Apollo and the Sun Phoibus (“shining”) Apollo as Helios (Sun) and Artemis as Selene (Moon) Phaethon and the chariot of the Sun ▯ ▯ The Olympians: Artemis and Pan (9/21) ▯ The Birth of Artemis Leto (Roman: Latona) conceives twins: o Apollo o Artemis (Roman: Diana) Hera’s jealously, all the lands must reject Leto Artemis born first, helps deliver Apollo ▯ ▯ Artemis Goddess of: o the hunt o wilderness and wild animals o protector of young women Youthful girl, clothing o bow and arrows o accompanied by a hunting dog, wild animal (stag) o Romans: the moon Artemis of Ephesus: o Particular representation of Artemis from Epheus (city in Asia Minor) o Worshipped as a great goddess wild animals breasts, eggs, bull tests Myths of Artemis o Artemis and Apollo protecting Leto o Artemis on her own: myths about her purity and chastity companion of Artemis Daphne and Apollo Artemis and her hunting companions Orion – her companion or opponent? ▯ ▯ Artemis and Apollo Apollo – a youth Artemis – a maiden o virginity o childbirth ▯ ▯ Artemis and Aktaion Aktaion – her hunting companion, catches sight of Artemis bathing Punishment of chased and devoured by his own hunting dogs ▯ ▯ Artemis and Atalante Abandoned as a baby o raised in the wilderness by a she-bear Dedicated to Artemis – sworn virginity Marriage o Atalante agrees to marry whoever can beat her in a foot-race o Hippomenes seeks help from Aphrodite golden apple used, to win her marriage but Hippomenes forgot to thank Aphrodite both are turned into lions, because then they cannot have sex with each other (what??) ▯ ▯ Tityos Son of Zeus, born from Earth (cthlonic) Attempts to rape Leto, is protected by Artemis and Apollo Punishment to Tartaros; two vultures and his liver eaten ▯ ▯ Niobe Claims she is grater than Leto because she has fourteen children and Leto only has two ▯ ▯ Pan Not an Olympian god Goat-man, nature creature o rural wilderness o satyrs, sexuality o connection with Artemis and Apollo ▯ ▯ Pan and Syrinx Pan pursues Syrinx, a nymph dedicated to Artemis o She asks Zeus to turn her into reeds to escape o She’s transformed into reeds Pan creates the reed-pipe ▯ ▯ Pan and Music Pan challenges Apollo (similar to Marsyas) o Midas supported Pan, but Apollo changed his ears to donkey ears as punishment o “The Midas touch” – a gift from Dionysos anything touched becomes gold ▯ ▯ The Olympian Gods: Dionysos (9/24) ▯ Dionysos, god of: Grapevine Wine-making and wine Drinking – ritual madness and ecstasy ▯ ▯ Foreign Exotic animals, clothes Accompanied by followers: o Satyrs o Mainads ▯ ▯ Story of Dionysos Birth – son of Zeus and Semele (princess of Thebes) Story begins with foundation of Thebes ▯ ▯ Cadmus and Thebes Cadmus (brother of Europa) o Founds the city of Thebes Sowing the dragon’s teeth o The Spartoi – Thebes’ first citizens Cadmus marries Harmonia (daughter of Aphrodite and Ares) o Daughters: Semele, Agave Blind Teiresias becomes his advisor ▯ ▯ Semele and Zeus Zeus’ relationship with Semele o Her family’s skepticism Hera’s jealousy with the lightning bolt Dionysos born from Zeus’ thigh ▯ ▯ Birth of Dionysos Dionysos’ is twice born; Semele dies in pregnancy Zeus gives the infant to Hermes To escape Hera, Hermes and Dionysos head East ▯ ▯ Dionysos in the East Cultivation of the vine Raised by a satyr in Phrygia o Midas, king of Phrygia Expedition to India Returns to Thebes o Thebes ruled by Pentheus, son of Agave (Semele’s sister) o Dionysos’ arrival with his followers established worship in Greece ▯ ▯ Dionysos’ Worshippers Dionysos drives the women of Thebes mad: o Mainads o Thyrsos – a staff o Animal sacrifice, eating raw flesh Minyades ▯ ▯ Death of Pentheus Pentheus resists the worship of Dionysos o Punishment: torn apart by Agave and her sisters in a god- induced frenzy ▯ ▯ Dionysos on Mt. Olympus Dionysos presents himself to the other gods on Mt. Olympus Rescues Semele from the underworld ▯ ▯ Dionysos and Hephaistos Dionysos helps Hephaistos return to Mt. Olympus after his exile ▯ ▯ Dionysos and Ariadne Dionysos’ consort: Ariadne (Cretan princess) o Minotaur in the Labrynth Theseus and the Minotaur Annual tribute from Athens to King Minos in Crete Ariadne helps the hero Theseus kill the Minotaur Ariadne abandoned on Naxos o Theseus abandons Ariadne sleeping on a beach at Naxos o Discovered by Dionysos and his Mainads ▯ ▯ Dionysos and Apollo Apollo and order o Cosmos, the Golden Mean catharsis: o Order and disorder o Culture and nature o Control and release ▯ ▯ The Olympians: Hermes & Asclepios (9/26) ▯ Hermes God of boundaries and boundary-crossing o Messenger o Trade and commerce, thieves o Sports and athletes o Protector of the herds o Trickster, inventor Son of Zeus and the nymph Maia o Homeric Hymn to Hermes Light tone, presents Hermes as a precocious child Relationship with Apollo Birth of Hermes o Conception and birth o The child Hermes Stealing the cattle of Apollo Capturing a tortoise and inventing the lyre Apollo Accuses Hermes o Apollo grabs Hermes and carries him to Zeus Hermes’ self-defense o Hermes plays the lyre for cattle from Apollo Hermes in the Homeric Hymn o Demonstrates Hermes’ identity: Thieves and stealing Crossing boundaries Exchange and trade Herds Invention and cleverness, deceit Other Attributes o Talaria – winged sandals made for Hermes by Hephaistos o Patasos – a flat-brimmed sun hat worn by travellers Sometimes seen with wings Messenger o Seen Hermes previously as a messenger/courier Brings Pandora to Epimetheus Prometheus Bound Io – killers her guard Argus Hermes and the infant Dionysos God of Trade o Romans: mercury from mercedes (pay, salary) o Travel and exchange Herms o Hermes and boundaries o Herms – sacred boundary markers Street corners, doors, along roads ▯ ▯ The Caduceus Apollo gives Hermes the caduceus as a gesture of friendship o Which is a staff, entwined with two snakes Teiresias, gender, crossing boundaries Symbol for a herald or messenger o Sometimes seen with Iris, another messenger God o A symbol of medicine? Sometimes with one or two snakes ▯ ▯ Asclepios Son of Apollo and Coronis Raised by Chiron (a Centaur) God of medicine and healing Boundary between life and death o Zeus kills Asclepios for bringing some back from the dead o Apollo kills the Cyclopes o Apollo’s Punishment: resurrection of Asclepios ▯ ▯ The Rod of Asclepios Snakes associated with healing o Source of drugs and medicine? o Symbol of rejuvenation? Apollo’s association with snakes: Python and Delphi ▯ ▯ Phallic-boundary Gods Roman god Priapus: o Son of Aphrodite (Venus) and Dionysos? (Hermes?) o Protected travellers, sailors, merchants o Depicted next to doors, on thresholds o Connection with Hermes (seen with the caduceus) Hermaphroditus o Son of Hermes and Aphrodite, whose body was combined with a nymph o Hermes and boundaries of gender Teiresias, earlier Hermes Psychopompos o Means leader of the souls o Hermes guides souls of the dead to the underworld ▯ ▯ The Olympians: Demeter (9/28) ▯ Children of Cronos and Rheia: Hestia Hera Demeter Hades Poseidon Zeus ▯ ▯ Mother Goddesses Female divinity who represents fertility and is the mother of other divinities o Minoan snake goddesses o Gaia, Rheia, Hera o Hecate Hestia o Roman: Vesta o Virginity Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite: Athena, Artemis and Hestia o Goddess of the hearth Demeter o mater = mother o De = Ge (earth?) ‘deo’ – god, and a name that Demeter claims in Homeric Hymn to Demeter) o Goddess of: Harvest, grains and cereal crops Mature; maternal figure Sheaves of wheat o Grief from Hades Rape of Persephone Searched the world for her Torches Period of nine days Hecate and Helios tell Demeter what happened Demeter ceases the world’s food production o The Homeric Hymn Demeter disguises as a mortal woman Comes to Eleusis, addressed by four daughter of Celeus Nurse Iambe cheers her up with jokes Demeter and Dolophon (son of Celeus) Attempted to make Dolophon immortal by dipping him into fire daily After discovery (which caused the failure) Demeter becomes enraged; demands a temple from the people of Eleusis for her and Persephone ▯ ▯ Demeter and Poseidon Poseidon desired Demeter o Demeter disguised as a mare o So Poseidon adopts the form a stallion o Demeter becomes raged after being raped o Children Son – Arion Divine, immortal horse Daughter – Despoina The Mistress, The Lady ▯ ▯ Persephone Daughter of Zeus? Or the same as Despoina? Roman: Prosperina Kore – the maiden ▯ ▯ Demeter and Persephone The pair signifies Demeter as a mother-goddess from the rape of Persephone by Hades o Zeus advises Hades to kidnap her o Hades rapes Persephone as she was picking wildflowers Zeus regrets decision; returns Persephone to Demeter Since Persephone had not eaten food in Underworld, she could be freed But she had sucked on pomegranate seeds, so she was taken back to the Underworld for 3 months (winter or no growing season) a year; causes Demeter to mourn and the raging winter The other 9 months are the growing season (food) aitiology – the seasons Ritual – the Eleusinian mystery cult ▯ ▯ The Eleusinian Mysteries Annual religious festival at the town of Eleusis Mystery cult Triptolemus, Demeter and Persephone Procession starts in Athens (14 miles away) Sacred insight: o Cycles of death and rebirth? o Life and death (Persephone?) ▯ ▯ Triptolemus One of the first priests of Demeter? Another name for Dolophon? o Immortality – gift from the earth ▯ ▯ Iambe Other festivals of Demeter – telling insulting jokes Reference to a sacred song? ▯ ▯ The Olympians: Hades (10/1) ▯ Rape of Persephone Hades abducts Persephone, daughter of Demeter ▯ ▯ Eleusinian Mysteries Mystery cults: revelation of secret knowledge Secrets of the afterlife? ▯ ▯ Zeus, Poseidon and Hades Rules over the air, sea and underworld Maintaining order and balance – cosmos ▯ ▯ Hades Rules the realm of the dead o Not “death” o Chthonic Zeus o Hades = unseen, Plouton = rich ▯ ▯ Hermes Psychopompos Guides souls of the dead to the underworld (boundary crossing) ▯ ▯ Realm of Hades Rivers: o Styx o Lethe Forgetfullness The soul – Plato’s Myth of Er Vergil’s Aenid Different regions: o Tartaros and Erebos - hell o Elysian Fields and the Isles of the Blessed - heroes o Asphodel Meadows - neutral ▯ ▯ Charon Ferryman across the Styx Payment ▯ ▯ Cerberus Multi-headed hound, prevents the dead from crossing back into the realm of the living ▯ ▯ Underworld Gods The Furies o Born from the blood of Ouranos (chthonic) o Goddesses of vengeance and retribution (story of Orestes) The Fates o Prometheus on Zeus’ fate o The thread of life Hecate o Attends Persephone in the underworld Judges of the Dead o Originally three famous mortal kings, sons of Zeus and Europa: Minos Rhadamanthys Aeacus ▯ ▯ Elysian Fields Contains the Isles of the Blessed – Age of Heroes in Hesiod’s Works and Days For gods and heroes o Vergil’s version: great men yet to be born ▯ ▯ Tartaros A pit, prison for the Titans Famous sinners and criminals receive extraordinary punishment Inhabitants o Tityos – slain by Apollo and Artemis vultures Two vultures eat his liver (similar to Prometheus) o Sisyphos – hubris rock Betrayal of Zeus Chains up Death Tricks Persephone ‘Sisyphean task’: rolling a boulder up a hill o Danaids (daughters of Danaus) water Murder of their husbands: sons of Aegyptus Ritual bath – carrying water in sieves o Ixion – lusts for Hera burning wheel Father of the centaurs with Nephele (cloud version of Hera) Burning lust – tied to a burning wheel o Tantalus – food/water Sacrificed his son and fed his body to the gods ‘Tantalize’: food and water just out of reach ▯ ▯ Heroes (10/3) ▯ Greek Heroes A dead person who receives cult honors Between a man and god o demigod? Mortality Civic founders, successful athletes Extreme and intense o In good and bad ways Antagonistic relationship with the gods, or god o Parentage ▯ ▯ Sagas and Epic Cycles Stories of the deeds of the heroes o Theseus (killed the Minotaur) ▯ ▯ Orpheus Son of Calliope (Muse of epic poetry) o Father – the human Oeagrus, or god Apollo? Lyre – musical ability o Gift from Apollo o Surpassed musical ability; controlled nature itself Man and god ▯ ▯ Orpheus Sooths the Sirens Orpheus and the voyage of the Argonauts Sirens – maneating bird-women who lure sailors to their deaths with their irresistible songs Orpheus’ song was more beautiful than the Sirens’, so the sailors were safe ▯ ▯ Orpheus and Eurydice Orpheus marries the nymph Eurydice Death of Eurydice – pursuit by a satyr o Snake bite ▯ ▯ Orpheus’ Grief Journey to the underworld to retrieve Eurydice o Katabasis – a hero journeys past the boundaries of life and death Orpheus in the Underworld o Soothes Cerberus, persuades Persephone o Hades returns Eurydice to Orpheus, but he turns back to look at her and loses her again ▯ ▯ Death of Orpheus Orpheus rejects all women and all gods (except Apollo) Torn apart by the mainads (frenzied followers of Dionysos) Orpheus’ head and lyre continue to sing beautiful songs Burial by the Muses ▯ ▯ Orpheus as Hero Divine and human parents Extreme qualities of musical ability o Journeys to the underworld Relationship with the god: Apollo, Dionysos, Persephone and Hades ▯ ▯ Orpheus as God Orphic Mysteries (Cult): o Initiation o Divine secrets of life, death, transmigration of the soul o Sacred texts o Dionysos, Persephone, Orpheus o ▯ Heroes: Perseus (10/8) ▯ Birth of Perseus Danae, daughter of King Acrisius of Argos was his mother Acrisius consults oracle about lack of sons o Shuts Danae up in a tower o Killing family is very bad Zeus impregnates Danae in the form of a shower of gold Acrisius puts Danae and Perseus into a chest and throws it into the sea ▯ ▯ Perseus’ Childhood Grew up on the island of Seriphos Raised by a fisherman King Polydectes ▯ ▯ Perseus’ Quest Perseus protects Danae from Polydects Polydectes’ banquet The Myths of Crete ▯ The Story of Europa & The Bull Come from Ovid’s Metamorphoses ▯ -Europa was the daughter of Agenor ▯ -Zeus approaches Europa in the form of a Bull He had help form Hermes in driving the herd of King Agenor’s cows down to the seashore where she was. ▯ Quote about Europa meeting the bull (Zeus) o “Europa’s fears shrink away as he offers his mighty dewlaps to be stroked by her virginal hand, his horns for garlands of flowers. Soon the innocent princess, not knowing what lay in her future, dares climb up and sit on his shoulders…off he goes with his prize” ▯ ▯ -When Europa climbs on Zeus’s back he carries her off to the land of Crete ▯ -Zeus gives Europa Laelaps: Dog that always catches what it chases Talus (or Talos): Giant Bronze robot that protects the island by throwing rocks at approaching ships ▯ -They have 3 Kids, only 1 is important Minos ▯ -Zeus gets tired of Europa and returns to Mount Olympus ▯ ▯ Minos & Pesiphae ▯ -Minos overpowers his 2 other brothers and drives them out ▯ -When his stepfather (Asterius) dies he claims the thrown Reason: Says that Poseidon promised it to him ▯ ***Says a giant bull will come from the sea to prove his story, he is supposed to sacrifice the bull but ends up not doing so.*** ▯ -Marries Pasiphae ▯ -Poseidon gets mad that Minos breaks his promise Causes Pasiphae to fall in love with the bull ▯ -Daedalus: Greatest craftsman of that time Constructs a wooden bull so that Pasiphae can crawl inside and become pregnant ▯ -Gives birth to the Minotaur half bull half human ▯ -Minos won’t kill the Minotaur because it’s family ▯ -Daedalus constructs the Labyrinth to imprison the monster ▯ ▯ -Minos’ son Androgues is killed after fighting the bull during an Athletic contest in Athens. Aegeus is King of Athens ▯ -Minos sails to attack Athens because of this -on the way he attacks the city of Megara, ruled by Nisus Nisus’ strength lies in a purple lock on his head. Scylla Daughter of Nisus who falls in love with Minos Promises to cut off father’s lock if Minos marries her Minos agrees Goes back on his word once he wins Scylla dies swimming out after Minos Is turned in to the “shearer” bird Minos attacks Athens -Prays to Zeus for help Zeus send terrible plague and many Athenians die ▯ -Oracle tells them to submit to Minos ▯ - Minos demands that every nine years the Athenians should send seven boys and seven girls to be devoured by the Minotaur. ▯ -Theseus is one of the boys being brought to be killed o Minos makes a pass at a female captive o Theseus warns him off and brags about being descended form Poseidon o Minos throws a ring into the sea & challenges Theseus to retrieve it. Brings back a wreath from Amphrite wife of Poseidon ▯ ▯ Theseus & the Minotaur ▯ -Theseus arrives on Crete. ▯ -Ariadne: daughter of Minos. falls in love with Thesues ▯ -promises to show the way how to subdue the Minotaur if Theseus agrees to take her away and marry her. He agrees ▯ -Theseus ties a thread to the door of the labyrinth, finds the Minotaur, kills him, and follows the thread back to the entrance. BOOM ▯ Quote about Theseus killing the Minotaur o “The monster slashed with his horns at the unresisting breezes, but Theseus’ sword brought him low in a thunderous earth-shaking crash, like an oak laid low by a storm on the rocky summit of Taurus. Led by the slender thread he had laid to guide his returning, to keep him from loosing his way, the victor retraced his steps to safety and glory.” -Catullus ▯ -Theseus escapes with Ariadne. disgusted at Ariadne’s treachery to her father, he abandons her in the city of Naxos. Quote about Ariadne chasing after Theseus “Minos daughter wades out, till the seaweed swirls at her ankles, watching with horror-struck eyes…the wind has blown the soft head-scarf of her soft yellow hair. Lost is the silken blouse that covered her milk-white bosom; no more did a thin woven girdle encircle her swelling breasts…but she never gave it a thought, stunned by her lot, to Theseus she directed her heart, mind, and soul.” ▯ ▯ Daedalus & his son Icarus ▯ -Imprisoned in the Labyrinth after Theseus escapes with Ariadne and Minos blames them for everything ▯ -Daedalus makes wings out of feathers and fastens them with wax He warns Icarus not to fly too close to the sun o Icarus does and he dies (dumbass) ▯ Quote about the death of Icarus “Then Icarus, overly rash in his adolescent bravado, abandoned his father’s side and soared up into the sky. The wax gives way as the hot sun grows closer. Pull as he will, his wings no longer maintain their grip on the wind. Shaken by terror, he stares from the upper vaults of the heaven at the rolling sea below, and faints at from his gathering fear…he screams in vain as he tumbles, but the livid waves close in and stifle his cry as he falls.” ▯ ▯ Mino’s death ▯ -Daedalus goes to the City of Cocalus in Sicily ▯ -Minos was looking everywhere for Daedalus, carrying with him a shell and promising great rewards to whoever could pass a thread through its windings. ▯ -Minos arrived to the court of Cocalus. ▯ -Cocalus claimed that he could solve the puzzle. He took the shell to Daedalus who managed to pass the thread ▯ -Minos realizes only Daedalus could do this and demands Cocalus gives him up. ▯ -Before he does Cocalus invited Minos to a feast. ▯ -As Minos was taking his bath, before the feast, the daughters of Cocalus filled the tub with boiling water and Minos was burned to death. ▯ ▯ Archaeology and shit ▯ -Cretan symbol was the axe and the bull ▯ -Worshipped the Mother goddess ▯ -Places were not fortified ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Camdus & the Dragon ▯ -After unsuccessfully searching for his sister Europa he goes to the Oracle of Delphi Pythia tells him to give up Says instead to follow a cow with special markings and build a city where he stops Founds the city of Thebes ▯ -When preparing for a sacrifice to Zeus his friends are killed by a dragon while fetching water. ▯ -Cadmus defeats the dragon and plants its teeth into the ground ▯ -Armed men spring up from the ground Cadmus throws stones at them and they kill each other ▯ **Only five survive, the Sparti, “sown men,” ancestors of the aristocratic families in Thebes ▯ -Has to serve Ares for 8 years for killing the dragon ▯ ▯ Cadmus & Harmonia ▯ -Harmonia is the daughter of Ares & Aphrodite, married to Cadmus Known for having one of the most beautiful weddings - many of the gifts given at the wedding by Aphrodite were beautiful but cursed for later generations. ▯ **Cadmus and Harmonia were ultimately turned into serpents and sent by Zeus to live in the Elysian fields ▯ ▯ Amphion and Zethus ▯ -Zeus seduces Antiope daughter of Nycteus, King of Thebes Twins ▯ -A shepherd finds them in the mount Cithaeron. ▯ -He raises the twins and gives them their names, Amphion and Zethus ▯ -Antiope had been forced to leave Thebes for being seduced by Zeus ▯ -Lycus, Brother of Nycteus brings her back and hands her over to his wife, Dirce Dirce hates Antiope and abuses her ▯ -Amphion runs away and meets up with her children ▯ **Amphion and Zethus punish Dirce by tying her to a bull which drags her to death. Then they kill Lycus ▯ -The 2 brothers rule Thebes in Harmony ▯ ▯ Oedipus the King ▯ -Laius, king of Thebes married to Jocasta ▯ -Oracle says he will die at the hands of his son so he does not sleep with his wife. That plan fails when he gets drunk…. ▯ -Laius order that the child born be left to die ▯ -Leaves the baby with a shepherd to be left in the wild Shepherd takes pity and names the baby Oedipus “swollen foot” (his feet were nailed to a board so his ghost couldn’t get away) ▯ -Oedipus goes to Delphi to ask about his birth ▯ Delphi: Oedipus will kill his father and sleep with his mother. Oedipus heads towards Thebes thinking the oracle is talking about his adoptive parents -On the way there, he gets into a fight and kills a man who struck him with his goad (DAD Laius, King of Thebes) -Creon, now in charge of Thebes declares that whoever can kill the Sphinx terrorizing the people can marry the queen of Thebes The Sphinx “what goes on four legs in he morning, two at midday, and three in the evening?” HUMAN ▯ Oedipus marries the queen (MOM) They had two sons, Polynices and Eteocles and two daughters, Antigone and Ismene ▯ ▯ -Sophocles in his Oedipus the King unfolds little by little how Oedipus finds out the truth ▯ “To all Cadmeans do I proclaim: if any of you knows by whom your king Laius was slain, I order him to tell me all he knows…” “I herby call down curses on this killer-be he alone, or helped in secret crime-that horribly, as he is horrible, he may drag out his wretched unblessed days. “Hanged from the ceiling, there we saw his wife, chocked by a twisted rope around her neck. Oedipus saw her too. With a piteous groan he loosened the throttling rope around her throat…he ripped the golden pins from off her robe, raised them on high, and plunged them in his eyes…cursing himself, again, and yet again, he slashed his eyes and with each frenzied blow the bleeding sockets dripped down on his beard, until at the last the drops became a storm.’ -Quotes from the play about Oedipus by Sophocles “Oedipus the King” ▯ -Jocasta kills herself and Oedipus stabs his eyes and blinds himself ▯ ▯ Shit to “think” about ▯ -Is Oedipus a victim of fate, a plaything in the hands of the gods? Is foreknowledge fate? Can fate be avoided? ▯ -Oedipus is a symbol of a man who chooses to pursue the truth, regardless of the consequences ▯ ▯ The Seven against Thebes ▯ -Eteocles and Polynices, sons of Oedipus agree to share power in the city equally, one ruling one year, the other the next ▯ Etecoles”True glory” ▯ Polynices”Filled with content” ▯ -Eteocles refuses to give up the power and drives his brother from the city. Polynices goes to Adrastus ▯ -Adrastus, King of Argos, gives his daughter to Polynices to marry and promises to restore him to Thebes. Seven heroes lead the way against Thebes ▯ - Creon (representing Eteocles) and Polynices are trying to abduct Oedipus Because and Oracle says whichever city possesses the bones of Oedipus will never be captured ▯ -Oedipus curses both his sons and predicts that they will kill each other ▯ *** Eteocles and Polynices meet in combat and each kills the other ▯ ▯ Quote about Eteocles & Polynices killing each other “Each took his sword in hand and charged the other…so side by side the brothers fell to earth, one by the other. Thus they shared the realm” ▯ -Creon The new king of Thebes decides that the corpses of the attackers are not to be given proper burial and that anyone who defies the edict will be put to death ▯ Antigone is determined to bury Polynices, Creon finds out Antigone’s intentions and contemns her to death. He sends her to a cave to be buried alive ▯ -Haemon, son of Creon and fiancé of Antigone, tries to change his fathers mind about killing Antigone -Creon goes to the cave; Antigone has hanged herself -Haemon tries to kill his father with his sword, misses, and kills himself -The mother of Haemon, at the news of her son’s death, commits suicide …Basically everyone dies… ▯ ▯ Quote about everyone dying “…Love, unconquered in the fight, Love, you who make havoc of wealth, who keep thy vigil on the soft cheek of a maiden; thou roam over the sea, and among the homes of dwellers in the wilds; no immortal can escape thee, nor any among men whose life is for a day; and he to whom thou hast come is mad…” ▯ ▯ Themes form this story ▯ - State vs family: should the city or the family be the basis of society? ▯ -Woman vs man: The female is acting on the male, while the male is acted upon ▯ ▯ - Iolcus: an important city from which the Argonauts started their voyage ▯ ▯ Phrixus and Helle ▯ -Athmas the unluckiest man in Greek History st ▯ -1 Wife Nephele SonPhrixus DaughterHelle nd ▯ -WifeIno -Gave Athmas 2 sons -Extremely jealous of Phrixus because he would inherit the thrown instead of her children -She tricked Athamas into believing that Apollo wanted him to sacrifice Phrixus in order to make the crops grow again -(Very intricate plan involving the women of the village, Oracle of Delphi and Apollo and a lot of bribes) -Athmas tries to sacrifices Phrixus -A Golden Ram appears and carries off Phrixus and Helle Helle falls off and dies…”Hellespont” now the name of the place where she died. Ram take Phrixus to the city of Colchis, ruled by Aeetes Phrixus scarifies the ram to Zeus and gives the Golden Fleece to Aeetes who has it guarded by a dragon o Aeetes give Phrixus one of his daughters to marry ▯ ▯ Pelias and Jason -Pelias was the son of Poseidon and Tyro -Pelias bullied his half brother Aeson, locks him away for a while -Aeson hids his son Jason from Aeson and sends him to train under Chiron trainer of heroes. ▯ -Prophecy tells Pelias that he will be killed by a man wearing one sandal ▯ -Jason heads to Icolus to claim the thrown. ***The real downfall of Pelias is plotted by Hera for Pelias not honoring her. When Jason was traveling to Icolus he carried a woman across a river an lost a sandal. This woman was Hera. He just proved his worth to her ▯ -Upon arriving Pelias send Jason to recover the Golden Fleece ▯ ▯ Jason and the Argonauts ▯ -Ship was built by Argus, he named it Argo ▯ -Manned by some of the greatest heroes of that day ▯ -The Argonauts arrive on the island of Lemnos. Only women lived there o -The women welcome the Argonauts in their beds and nine months later a new generation of Lemnians sprang up The Land of Doliones ▯ -They arrive at the land of the Doliones whom they kill by accident. After they leave, that night the wind blows them back and they wind up on shore and the locals attack, Jason and his men slaughter them o Jason accidently killed their kind Cyzicus himself. Leaving Heraclea behind ▯ -They leave and Heracles snaps his oar, whoops! He goes to look for wood and his boyfran Hylas is kidnapped by nymphs Heracles goes to look for him and the Argonauts set off without him not realizing he is gone. King Phineus and the Harpies ▯ -King Phineus had the gift of prophecy and had abused it. So Zeus mde him blind. Now when people brought him gifts of food to ask for their future Harpies stole it from him Phineus promises the Argonauts to show them the way to Colchis if the Boreads help him. o They kill the Harpies The Rocks of Symplegades ▯ -Phineus warns them about the Symplegades, the “Clashing Rocks,” which smashed anything that came between them. Told them to release a dove before trying to pass through them as a test to see fi they would make it ▯ The dove passed through, losing only its tail feathers as the rocks crashed together behind it. -Their ship lost their banner as it passed through. ▯ ▯ Medea and the Golden Fleece ▯ -The Argonauts arrive at Colchis. ruled by Aeetes ▯ -Hera causes Medea, a sorceress and the king’s daughter, to fall in love with Jason and betray her father. ▯ -A prophecy had told Aeetes that a foreigner would be his undoing so he not like them there ▯ -Aeetes says he’ll give Jason the Golden fleece if: ▯ Jason should yoke two fire-breathing, bronze-hoofed bulls, plow the ground, sow the dragon’s teeth left over from the dragon Cadmus had killed, and kill the armed warriors who would spring from the earth ▯ -Jason gets depressed thinking he can’t perform the task -Madea gives him a protective ointment and he promises to marry her Jason succeeds in performing the task. he puts the dragon to sleep, snatches the fleece and the two flee away ▯ -Aeetes and Apsyrtus, his son, pursue them o Medea or Jason kill Apsyrtus. ▯ Libya ▯ -The ship halts upon the burning sands. ▯ -The Argonauts pick it up on their shoulders and carry it for nine days. ▯ -They find the Garden of the Herperides. Heracles has just left with the apples. They try and bring him back to their crew but fail ▯ -They manage to return Argo to the sea and they head north to Crete Guided by the river god Trition ▯ ▯ Crete ▯ -Here they fight the Giant Robot Talus who hurls stones at them ▯ -Medea fixes the giant with her evil eye. ▯ -He strikes his ankle against a rock and dislodges the plug that held in the ichor, his divine blood and dies ▯ ▯ Is Jason a Hero? ▯ -Story comes from: Apollonius of Rhodius (3nd century BC) in his poem the Argonautica ▯ -Jason isn’t as brave as other heroes and needs a woman’s help to accomplish his goals ▯ ▯ -Jason and Medea arrive at Iolcus with the fleece ▯ -Pelias but he refuses to give up the throne ▯ -Medea claims to Pelias' daughters that she can make their father younger by chopping him up into pieces and boiling the pieces in a cauldron of water and magical herbs. Restores the youth to a lamb Kills Pelias after his daughters are convinced and cut him up ▯ ▯ -Jason becomes king ▯ -People don’t like Jason ▯ -Jason and Medea, expelled from Iolcus ▯ -They go to Corinth ▯ Jason wants to marry Glauce, daughter of the local king ▯ ▯ Euripides Medea ▯ -A poem about shit ▯ -Quote from this Poem “There was a time when in my heart my husband stood as type of all good things, alas, that time is gone. If I can find a way to repay him for all the misery he has laid on me along with the girl he miscalls his wedded wife…” ▯ -Jason grows tired of Medea and want to marry Glacue ▯ -Medea is heartbroken Begs Jason to stay o Quote about dat “I saved you…I killed the dragon…I betrayed my father and followed you to Pelian Iolcus. All this I did for you and you betrayed me, courting your new bride…” ▯ ▯ -Medea gives Jason’s new wife a Tierra that burned her flesh off …she set a golden tiara and fixed her hair before a polished mirror…then, all at once, she turned dead white, she staggered to the side, trembling in every limb…foam came boiling from her mouth, the eyes protruded…the tiara poured out an awful stream of gnawing flame while her robe, devoured the tortured woman’s milky flesh… ▯ -Then she killed the 2 sons she had with Jason ▯ ▯ Death of Jason ▯ -Jason never recovers from the disaster. One day he sits beneath the prow of Argo. The prow breaks, falls on Jason’s head, and kills him. ▯ ▯ The Calydonian Boar Hunt ▯ -The King and Queen of Calydon have a son, Meleager ▯ -At his birth, two of the Fates said that Meleager would become handsome and brave ▯ -the third pointed to a log burning in the fireplace and proclaimed that when the log is consumed, Meleager would die. ▯ -His mother takes the log out of the fire ▯ -Artemis, god of the hunt had sent an enormous boar against Calydon The best fighters gather in an attempt to defeat it. Meleager is their leader ▯ -Atalanta, a famous athlete, joins the hunt Meleager want to sleep with her ▯ -The heroes kill the beast. But Atalanta draws first blood. Meleager gives the pelt to Atalanta ▯ -His maternal uncles protest that a woman should receive the trophy and Meleager kills them ▯ -Hearing the news that her brothers are dead, Meleager’s mother throws the log into the fire and Meleager dies ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ The House of Atreus ▯ -Pelops: Chopped up by his father and fed to the god during a fest to test their omniscience ▯ -All the gods detect human flesh and refuse to eat it, except for Demeter She eats his shoulder ▯ -Zeus order Hermes to put the parts back into the stew and boil them, out pops Pelops without a shoulder Hephaestus makes him a new one made of Ivory ▯ ▯ -Oenomaus had a beautiful daughter named Hippodamia He falls in love with her but she refuses him He prevents her from marrying by offering her as a prize in an unwinnable contest o Would challenge a potential suitor to a chariot race and then come up behind them and stab them. ▯ Pelops Bribes Oenomaus’s charioteer Myrtilus Promises him the first night with Hippodamia if he helps him win o Myrtilus agrees Puts wax on the chariot axel so the wheels fall off -Pelops throws Myrtilus off a cliff when he gets to eager for Hippodamia Myrtilus Curses his whole family line as he dies ▯ ▯ Pelop’s Children ▯ -Thyestes and Atreus ▯ -Mycenaeans asked for one of the 2 to become their new king ▯ -Thyestes the younger one says a sign must be produced to prove who it should be One must present a golden fleece o Secretly Atreus had acquired this from Thystes through his wife whom he had been having an affair with Thyestes wins that round ▯ -Next Atreus says to prove Zeus wants him to be king he will make the sun rise in the West. ▯ -Atreus prayed to Zeus to make the sun rise in the west. ▯ -Atreus became king of Mycenae and banished Thyestes ▯ ▯ -Atreus figures out how his younger brother go the fleece and invites him back fro a dinner Thyestes chops up Atreus’s children and feeds them to him ▯ -Thyestes goes to Delphi to find out how to get even with Atreus Oracle says he must have a child by his own daughter That night he rapes a random woman and neither of them know each other…. he leaves his sword behind with her ▯ -This woman gets prego and marries Atreus Atreus thinks the son is his Names him Aegisthus ▯ -Agamemnon & Menelaus The sons of Atreus o Find Thyestes and bring him to Atreus ▯ -Atreus tells Aegisthus to kill Thyestes -At the last second Thyestes realizes Aegisthus is his son -Pelopia kills herself and Aegisthus kills Atreus -Thyestes becomes king of Mycenae -Agamemnon, with the help of Tyndareus, (King of Sparta) takes power of Mycenae from Thyestes Oath of Tyndareus -Tyndareus marries Leda Leda is raped by Zeus in the form of a swan Their daughter’s name is Helen Most beautiful woman everrr ▯ Leda and Tyndareus’s Child Clytemnestra Marries Agamemnon Tyndareus can’t decide how to marry off Helen Oath of Tyndareus (as suggested by Odysseus) “If anyone carried Helen off, then all the suitors together should join in pursuit and exact punishment from the offender” (Oath of Tyndareus) ▯ -Helen is married to Menelaus ▯ ▯ -Peleus Married to Thetis by the will of Zeus Prometheus warns Zeus that her child will be greater that the father Their child is Achilles ▯ ▯ - Telamon Brother of Peleus Father of Ajax o Trojan war Hero (lesser Ajax) ▯ ▯ Wedding of Peleus and Thetis ▯ -Most beautiful wedding ever as a reward from Hera for Thetis not sleeping with Zeus ▯ -Eris “Strife” shows up and crashes the party with an apple to the fairest goddess ▯ -Paris, a Trojan prince is the judge of this HeraGlobal power AthenaGreat Military career Aphrodite Most beautiful woman ever o WINNER ▯ -Aphrodite makes Helen of Greece fall in love with Paris They run away to Troy together ▯ The Gathering at Aulis -All the former suitors of Helen gather here to go rescue her -Odysseus Pretends to be insane so he wont have to go with o Palamedes puts Odysseus’s child in front of the plow to see if he will run it over He doesn’t and joines them ▯ -Odysseus goes and gets Achilles Achilles is in hiding with mom, dressed like a girl Odysseus brings him out by signaling an attack o all the other girls run but one grabs a sword -Achilles ▯ ▯ Iphigenia Daughter of Agamemnon who must be sacrificed to please the gods Quote o “Her youth, her pleas, her anxious cries of “Father!” affected not at all the grim old men whose plans demanded war…she let her wedding dress drop to the ground. She shot a piteous glance at each of her killers, eager to speak, like a picture from happier times…” ▯ ▯ Philoctetes ▯ - gets bit by a snake and left on an island ▯ -Ends up with Heracles’s bow ▯ th ▯ Trojan war in the 10 year comes from the Iliad ▯ ▯ Agamemnon pisses off Achilles ▯ -Chryseis Daughter of the Trojan Priest Chryses Taken by Agamemnon -Chryses asks for her back but Agamemnon refuses Chryses prays to Apollo and the god sends a plague to the Greek camp ▯ -Greeks demand Agamemnon give Chryseis back ▯ He does but in return he takes Achilles woman Briseis -Achilles is PISSEDDD Quote about Agamemnon taking Achilles woman o “The challenge enraged Achilles; his angry spirit debated: should he draw his keen-edged sword, hanging down by his thigh, thrust the others aside, and assassinate proud Agamemnon, or should he swallow his anger, controlling his furious spirit?” ▯ Helen on the wall Quote about why the Greeks fight so much for one woman (Helen) o “No one can blame the Trojans or yet the well-graved Achaeans for enduring so much and so long for such a beautiful woman…” ▯ ▯ Hector and Andromache ▯ -Hector is the greatest Trojan warrior ▯ -Astyanax Son of Hector and Andromache “…Thus, Hector, you have become to me both father and mother, you have become my brother-but above all the husband I cherish. Now hear the prayer of my anguish: Stay safely here on the tower, lest your dear son be orphaned, and I be left as your widow…” “…[I worry] for my fame in the mouths of the people of Ilium, both men and long skirted women, if they discovered me skulking like a coward here in the city, away from the tumult of battle. A longing to skulk has never kept me way from the fighting, since the day I learned the lesson of how to summon my courage, and always join the struggle amid the first ranks of the Trojans, defending the fame of my father, and my own reputation as well.” Quotes about Hector leaving Andromache and Astyanax ▯ ▯ The Embassy to Achilles ▯ -The Greeks (Danaans, Achaeans, Argives) are losing the battle ▯ -Agamemnon decides to offer Achilles an enormous reward to persuade him to come back and fight ▯ -Odysseus, Ajax, and Phoenix go to the tent of Achilles to report Agamemnon’s offer ▯ -Achilles rejects the offer Quote about the Embassy o “…suppose he gave me ten times, twenty times all that he owns…suppose he offered as many gifts as the sand of the seaside, as specks of dust of the air-Agamemnon would make no impression until he could make reparation for insults galling my spirit…” ▯ ▯ The Death of Patroclus ▯ -asks permission to go to battle wearing Achilles’ armor ▯ - Achilles cautions Patroclus not to go near the walls of Troy ▯ -Patroclus forgets his friend’s words; Hector kills him, strips of the armor, and puts it on ▯ -Achilles new armor is made by Hephaestus ▯ ▯ Death of Hector ▯ - Achilles storms into the battle and stabs his spear through Hector’s throat ▯ Hector begs for honorable funeral. ▯ - Achilles replies that he would rather eat Hector’s flesh raw ▯ -Achilles ties hector’s body to his chariot and drags the corpse in the dust for days ▯ - Priam, Hector’s father, goes to Achilles’ tent to offer ransom for his son’s corpse Quote ▯ “O Achilles, out of respect for the clemency loved by the gods, take pity on me, and remember in pity your own father. Yet my lot is surely the sadder, for- a thing no human before me has ever been humbled to do-I held the hand of the slayer of my own son to my lips, in token of deep supplication.” ▯ ▯ , Achilles gives up the body without ransom ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ The Judgment of the Arms of Achilles ▯ - Penthesilea Queen of the Amazon’s Comes to help the Trojans defeat the Greeks Is mortally wounded by Achilles, o He takes pity on her o She dies anyways ▯ -Thersites Describes Achilles as “the ugliest man who went to Troy” for killing a woman o Achilles kills Thersites ▯ - Paris,(The Trojan Prince and husband of Helen) Assisted by Apollo, kills Achilles Ajax recovers the body ▯ - Achilles’ armor is offered as prize to the next-best warrior ▯ -Ajax and Odysseus compete in a verbal contest. Odysseus wins by saying his cleverness has killed more Trojans ▯ -Ajax goes mad with anger. He attacks a flock of sheep believing it to be the Greek captains Ajax, ashamed, commits suicide ▯ THIS STORY IS TOLD BY SOPHOCLES ▯ ▯ The Trojan Horse ▯ -3 Requirements for the Greeks to win the Trojan war Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, has to join the battle the Palladium (statue of Athena) needs to be taken from Troy The bow of Heracles is also needed ▯ ▯
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