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Chapter 6 – Tour of the Cell

by: Sophia Notetaker

Chapter 6 – Tour of the Cell BIOC 0170

Marketplace > University of Pittsburgh > Biology > BIOC 0170 > Chapter 6 Tour of the Cell
Sophia Notetaker
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Tour of the Cell
Foundation of Biology I
Barbara Barnhart
Class Notes
Biology, chapter 6, tour of the cell
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophia Notetaker on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOC 0170 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Barbara Barnhart in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Foundation of Biology I in Biology at University of Pittsburgh.


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Date Created: 01/27/16
Biosc 0170 Chapter 6 – Tour of the Cell 1. Membranes – made of phospholipids and proteins a. Plasma membranes i. Membrane at the boundary of every cell ii. Acts as a selective barrier regulating chemical composition 1. Selective meaning as having something in and out b. Organelle membranes i. Will look at it next chapter 2. Nucleus a. Holds DNA i. Chromosomes made of chromatin (DNA and protein) a. Chromatin a. b. Nuclear envelope a. Double membrane (inner and and outer) b. Perforated with pored that regulate chemical traffic c. Outer membrane continuous with ER c. Nucleolus a. Dense section of of nucleus b. Produce parts of ribosomes 3. Ribosomes a. Made of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and protein b. Responsible for protein synthesis 1 Ch. 6 Biosc 0170 c. Free ribosomes float in cytosol i. Produce proteins that function within cytosol d. Bound ribosomes i. Attached to outside of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or nuclear envelope) e. Produce proteins that function 1. Insertion in membranes 2. Packing within organelles 3. Export from cell (secretion) - is going to transport to other part of the body 4. Endomembrane System a. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) i. Network of Membranes ii. Makes up more than ½ of total membrane in eukaryotic cells 2 Ch. 6 Biosc 0170 iii. Contains tubule and sacs called cisternae iv. One pare of the Enedomembrane System v. Two Types 1. Smooth ER – Outer surface and lacks ribosomes a. Functions: i. Synthesis of lipids (steroids, sex hormones) ii. Metabolism of carbohydrates iii. Detoxification of poisons iv. Storage of calcium ions 2. Rough ER – Outer surface has ribosomes a. Functions: i. Makes cell membranes ii. Makes secretory prottins iii. Secretory Proteins are secreted through transport vesicles b. Transport Vesicle i. Physically interacts with other cell structures ii. Can incorporated itself into the membrane of the other structures b. Golgi Apparatus i. Consis ts of of flattened membranes sacs 1. Stacked by not connected ii. Functions: 3 Ch. 6 Biosc 0170 1. Makes macromolecules 2. Modifies, stores, sorts and exports the products of the ER iii. Two sides: 1. Cis Face a. Located near ER b. Receives secretory proteins c. Modification and sorting occurs here 2. Trans Face a. Release the processed proteins Trans – the adult phase . Cis – is the child phase c. Lysosomes i. A membranes sac of hydrolytic enzymes ii. Function – To digest (hydrolyze) macromolecules (intracellular digestion) 1. Environment is acidic 2. Needs low pH iii. Phagocytosis 1. Digest ingested material into monomers (simple sugars, amino acid) 4 Ch. 6 Biosc 0170 2. Products pass into cytosol and are considered cell nutrients 3. Example: Macrophages (white blood cells) iv. Autophagy 1. Like a vacuum cleaner 2. Picks up dead/damages cellular structures, breaks them down and release products to be reused Digestion d. Vacuoles i. Derived from ER and Golgi apparatus ii. More abundant in plants (has a lot) 1. Plants a. Vacuoles very large, 80% of cell b. Central vacuole contains cell sap c. Functions: Storage, waste removal, cell elongation, protections iii. Animals 1. Food vacuole – digest food with aid of lysosomes 2. Contractile vacuole – pumps out excess water in protists(ameba). 5 Ch. 6 Biosc 0170 Review of Endomembrane System 1. Nuclear envelope is connected to rough ER, which is also continuous with smooth ER 6 Ch. 6 Biosc 0170 2. Membranes and proteins produced by the ER flow in the form of transport vesicles to the Golgi 3. Golgi pinches off transport vesicles and other vesicles that give rise to lysosomes, other types of specialized vesicles, and vacuoles 4. Lysosome is available for fusion with another vesicle for digestion 5. Transport vesicle carries proteins to plasma membrane for secretion 6. Plasma membrane expands by fusion of vesicles; proteins are secreted from cell 5. Mitochondria a. Process utilized oxygen b. Function – To provide energy c. Cellular Respiration i. Cellular respiration concerts the energy in the food you eat into chemical energy (ATP) 1. Metabolic process 2. Breaks down sugars and fats 3. Release energy (ATP) in the process 4. Process utilizes oxygen d. Has two membranes – Each is a phospholipids bilayer with embedded proteins i. Outer membrane - Smooth ii. Inner membrane 1. Convoluted, has fold called cristae 2. Cristae increases the surface area thus enhancing productivity of cellular respiration e. Creates two compartments i. Intermembrane Space 1. Region between inner and outer membrane (narrow) ii. Mitochondrial Matrix 1. Enclosed by the inner membrane; contains enzymes, DNA and ribosomes 7 Ch. 6 Biosc 0170 Contains 12 genes 6. Chloroplasts a. Only in plants b. Contain chlorophyll, other pigments and enzymes needed for photosynthesis c. Photosynthesis i. Harvest light energy (solar) to chemical energy ii. Produced sugar iii. Process utilizes carbon dioxide d. Has two membranes 1. Outer - Smooth 2. Inner – Smooth and not folded 3. Creates three compartments within chloroplast a) Intermembrane space b) stroma c) thylakoid space e. Inside the inner membrane: i. Fluid is called stroma 1. Contains chloroplast DNA, ribosomes and enzymes ii. Thylakoids 1. Flattened interconnected sacs iii. Granum (grana) 1. Each stack of thylakoids 8 Ch. 6 Biosc 0170 Chloroplast  Green stack is the grana 7. Peroxisomes a. Has a single membrane (bilayer) b. Have enzymes to remove hydrogen atoms from substrates c. RH 2 O  2 + H O 2 2 d. Function i. Breaks down fatty acids ii. Detoxify alcohol and other harmful compounds iii. Additional enzyme presents to convert peroxide to water 8. Cytoskeleton a. It is a network of fibers that extend into the cytoplasm b. Role: Support and Motility i. Support 1. Important for animal cell since they lack a cell wall 2. Stabilizes by a balance between opposing forces exerted by it elements 3. Anchors organelles ii. Motility (movement) 1. Interaction between cytoskeleton and moto proteins 9 Ch. 6 Biosc 0170 2. Cytoskeletal tracts c. Components i. Microtubules 1. Thickest out of all the components but hollow 2. Made from tubulin (protein) 3. Function a. Shape cell b. Support cell c. Serve as tracts to guide movement of organelles d. Separated chromosomes during mitosis 4. Radiate from a centrosome in animal cells a. Centrosome i. Microtubule organizing center ii. Made of 2 centrioles b. Centriole – composed of cylinder of microtubules triplets arranged in a ring c. Example: Cillia and flagella i. Appendages of cell that move cell ii. Arrangement of microtubules iii. 9 doublets of microtubules arrange in a ring iv. Center rings has 2 singles microtubules v. Doubles are connected by proteins(dysin) which caused bending in the microtubules 1. Figure. Read it from right to left  This is for Note B 10 Ch. 6 Biosc 0170 This is for note C d. Microfilaments i. Thinnest ii. Solid rods made from globular protein – actin iii. Twisted double chain of actin subunits 1. Functions: a. Maintenance of cell shape (tension – bearing) b. Change cell shape c. Muscle contraction (myosin) d. Cytoplasmic streaming e. Cell motility f. Cell division e. Intermediate filaments i. Thicker than microfilaments ii. Thinner than microtubules iii. Tend to be more permanent; they remain even after cell death iv. Made up of several different proteins such as keratin 1. Function a. Maintain cell shape b. Anchors nucleus and other organelles 9. Cell Walls a. Found in plants some prokaryotes, fungi and some protists b. Functions i. Protest plant cell ii. Maintain cell shape iii. Prevent excessive uptake of water c. Microfibrils i. Made of cellulose which is secreted into extracellular space and mixed with other polysaccharides(carbs) and proteins ii. Reinforce each other 11 Ch. 6 Biosc 0170 10. Extracellular Matrix (ECM) a. Made of glycoproteins and other carbohydrates i. Glycoproteins (proteins with a carbohydrate bound to it) is secreted by the cell ii. Accumulate outside of the plasma membrane b. Collagen – most abundant glycoprotein in animal cells i. Embedded in proteoglycans ii. Proteoglycans – consists of small core protein with many carbohydrate chains that are covalently attached c. Fibronectin i. Connects glycoproteins and proteoglycans to plasma membrane ii. Fibronectin attaches to integrin which are cell-surface receptor proteins that span the plasma membrane 1. Have extracellular and cytoplasmic domain 11. Cell Junctions a. Interactions and communication between neighboring cells b. Plants i. Plasmodesmata 1. Cytoplasmic channels that pass through cell walls 2. Membrane lined 3. Join internal chemical environments c. Animals i. Tight junction 1. Seals cells together 2. Prevent leakage of extracellular fluid across a layer ii. Desmosomes 1. Anchor cells together 2. Function like rivets (like jean) 12 Ch. 6 Biosc 0170 iii. Gap Junctions 1. Similar to plasmodesmata in plants but pores are not membrane lined 2. Cytoplasmic channels from one cell to an adjacent cell 3. Allow ions, sugars, amino acids and other small molecules to pass through 4. Necessary for cell to communicate 13 Ch. 6 Biosc 0170 14 Ch. 6


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