Class Note for ECOL 182R at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
ECOL 182 Spring 2008 Lecture 3 Animal physiology organ systems and internal environment Dr Regis Ferriere Department of Ecology amp Evolutionary Biology University of Arizona What are the key terms Multicellularanimals Organs Internal environment Homeostasis Hormones Circulatory system Hea Blood Gas exchange How are cells organized in 39 1 J ft in our body Epithelial tissue Lining lransmri secretion and absorption In multicellular animals xcells are organized in tissues xtissues make up Connective tissue Support strength and Ell351 iy organs interacting organs mm fm form organ systems Nervous tissue Information processing communication and control Within an organ tissues am organized in speci c ways BB Fi lI I39E 40 LIFE MSWOFMWI mm Em c 3317 39E rv39 As Internal environment Homeostasis Cells tissues organs organ systems are surrounded by extracellular fluid This is the internal environment Organs and organ systems provide physiological control and regulation to maintain stability or homeostasis of the internal environment The regulation of physiological systems is mostly through negative feedback regulation Feedforward information functions to change set points Skin 561133135 I313 htmnal am external alwirmnanli A Emmemw uid bathas all who ulna mgan39 nt DHth Mama pr mks Grails or mgans 9mm marinas w n mm om via the A Mary system I m mariais MIN the body Urinary sysmm Hummus 31m and Miler mm or Inlw Hanrrml and a minama wage products mm the bland sails and ware mam Endotherms do regulate their internal temperature 40 3 r39 i l 39 abodytenperatueofan 39 endother39rnrm momstam the that of an ectotmrm 39 eqaiibrates to the How does homeostasis work for temperature Ectotherms are animals whose body temperatures 34 are determined by external sources of heat Endotherms thermoregulation is achieved by prod ucmg andor requlatinq heat loss Control of blood flow to the skin is a very important for requlatinq heat loss Raw rampaanm 15 w Gder gt Wmn m Ermrmwumla temperature quotUi HOW do endmherms produce heat r 0 W 20 so my mm H lmthemanemml mu body lamwm um a regulamd 7 grams real lass Waugh ll v skin Energy is required The rate at which an animal consumes energy is called metabolic rate Most nonshivering heat production occurs in a maaaaia aa specialized adigose tissue brown fat JSpecialized cells that release heat by consuming metabolic fuels without producing ATP 39 r L Lmr Uppe crilical crilical imperative temperature Malahulin vale Basal in 2a Eu Ewan viei39ldl lewbaiahire m Ee aw ma luwer mam weraluve we airlinal 9mm melaml mi in cm DPKaietmlnmmd max loss in ma Bmiimmcnl Ahava ma chr crtlml rammme we animal must examind mlaschcallw awmgmsv W wmnmsxes ils maaaaxc mic Acrcasa How do cells tissues and organs exchange information about the internal environment Control and regulation require information Most information transmitted as electrical signals and as chemical signals xChemical signals are hormones There are many hormones that all play crucial roles in physiology reproduction development and behavior A Circulating hormones How do hormones work 14 Hormones are released by endocrine cells into internal environment where they diffuse to nearby cells or into blood xSome hormones are released by groups of aggregated endocrine cells called endocrine glands Target cells have receptors on their surface or in their large ijll rAu tomne homones mu p I a S m I to Hammer Em Ina Gifts 131 samba lilmi LIFE Be Figure 411 How do we hormones work 24 Hormones often occur in infinitesimal quantities Immunoassays are performed to detect and measure hormone concentrations LIFE Be Figure 4115 Part 2 LIFE 89 Figure 41151Part 1 RESEARGI METHOD Labeled hormone l Antibody Iga saturated with iabeled hormone o Unlabeled hormone hormone bound to antibody 70 60 5D 40 SD 20 10 0 O i m or WNW 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total unlabeled hormone concentration Labeled hormone bound to antibody amount HITMsmrmruruxmnrgwan n i i4gtltw u How do hormones work 34 A hormone can act through many receptors Affinity chromatography and genomic analysis to identify receptors and discover new ones Receptors can be upregulated or downregulated This will change the sensitivity to the hormone Response to hormone Hormone dose o How do hormones work 44 E Norepinephrine A hormone can act through different signal transduction Receptor 0L2 Norepinephrine Adenylyl cyclase athwa 3 V For example norepinephrine lt produced by adrenal gland binds to a cellsurface G Activated protein receptor The receptor Gm can be of two kinds that necepm Norepinephrine precursor PhospholipaseC molecules connect to different pathways within cells 1 Signaling pathways often involve quot cascades in which each step r amplifies the signal 332333 second LIFE 39 Figure 4117 Part 2 or Msmwcraramoar mmcamn v m w i The internal environment of animals is networked Two networks circulatory system and nervous system Here we focus on the former The circulatory system networks cells tissues and organs by moving extracellular fluid around the body JExtracellularfluid transports heat hormones respiratory gases nutrients and wastes Circulatory systems consist of a pump heart and an open or closed system of vessels through which is pumped a fluid blood that transports substances and heat Some animals do not have circulatory systems Vertebrate annelids and some other invertebrates have closed circulatory systems The vascular system keeps circulating blood separate from the interstitial fluid How are vertebrate circulatory sys ems organized Vertebrates have closed circulatory EOxygenated systems and hearts have evolved 00d from two to four chambers glgggygem ed When a heart chamber contracts Pulmonawcimu arteries and arterioles carry blood m the heart Capillaries are the site of exchange between blood and interstitial fluid Venules and veins carry blood Mto the heart In birds and mammals pulmonary circuit from heart to lungs and back to heart and systemic circuit are completely separate Systemic circuit 2 Awmicmrarwmvumnm M Hu to Right ventricle How does blood flow through the human heart Blood flows from riqht heart to lung to left heart to bodv Supenor vena save the blood remms to me le alrium amnvemrlcular Valve into me le vemrlcle amnvamrlcular Valve imn me right ventricle 6 The lefl venlriule pumps bluod mrough ma ao ic valve wit the systemic c39vcul39l a The rigM vemricle pumps the blood lhmugh me pulmonary valve imp the pulmonary circull NWT l acne venacava What is the cardiac cycle Both sides of the heart contract at the same time The contraction of the two atria followed by the contraction of the two ventricles is the cardiac cycle Cardiac cycle divided into two phases systole when ventricles contract Vdiastole when ventricles relax Lub The ventricles 1 The atna contract contract the atrloventrlcular Aortic valve Dup The ventricles relax pressure in the ventricles falls at the end or systole and since pressure is now greater in the aorta and pulmonary artery the aorth and pulmonary valves slam shut valves close and pressure in the ventricles burlds up until the aorth and pulmonaw valves open Blood is pumped out of the ventricles and into the aorta and pulmonary artery Atrloventrlcular valVES quht ventricle ventricle Where does the heartbeat come from i u Cardiac muscle has unique adaptations that enable it to function as a pump Cardiac muscle cells are in electric contact with one another enable action potentials to spread rapidly This results in large groups of cells contractinq in unison Some cardiac muscle cells are pacemaker cells can fire action potentials without stimulation from nervous system xSpecial behavior of ion channels in their membranes xTwo clusters sinoatrial node and atrioventricular node l quot1 n l an e Hean at rest diastole Bundle Atrial contraction The atrioventricular node res sending impulses along conducting bers 39 What s in the blood Blood lS withdrawn from tne arm placed in a test tube and centrifuged Components Functions 50 Hematocrit gt Components 1 0 Number per ul of blood Functions Blood consists of plasma complex aqueous solution and cells and cell fragments Hematocrit measures cellular proportion Water Solvent Erythrocytes red blood cells a 5396 million Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide Plasma portion Salts Plasma proteins Transport by blood Sodium potassium Albumin Elugegltjcose vitamins calcium magnesium Fibrinogen o Waste products of chloride bicarbonate lrnmunoglobullns metabolism 39 Respiratory gases Osmotic balance Osmotic balance 02 and C02 pH buffering regulation pH buffering clotting Hormones of membrane potentials immune responses Heat Cellular portion Leukocytes Platelets white blood cells cell fragments Basophil Eoslnophll Neutrophll Lymphocyte Monocyte 39 39 o 9 25000 51100 10000 400000 Destroy foreign cells produce antibodies Blood roles in allergic responses clotting How does blood transport oxygen Red cells contain huge numbers of hemoglobin proteins Hemoglobin molecule has 4 heme groups ironcontaining ring stuctures that can reversibly bind a 02 molecule 100 A Because of positive feased cooperativity hemoglobin q 75 A 9 affinity for 02 depends on P02 9 Drop in p02 39 39 5 f I39 experienced by hemoglobin I g 50 tgogsgufg d Hemoglobin picks up 02 as it Q 02in flows through respiratory g 25 d reserve exchange structures amp gives up 02 in metabolically active 0 I Y I I tissues 20 4o 60 80 100 P02 of blood mm Hg LIFE Be Figure 4312 ms Twcsmwcrormmoa39ntywtan i v A V How do capillaries work Capillaries have tiny holes not in brain bloodbrain barrier Small enough for water some ions small molecules but not proteins Arterioles branch into many capillaries hence blood pressure drops Starling s model blood volume maintained in cabillarv beds bv a changing balance between blood pressure and the colloidal osmotic pressure maintained constant by proteins that cannot leave capillaries A A Artery Vein Blood Colloidal Blood Colloidal pressure osmotic pressure osmotic 935 layer 40 pressure 16 Pressure 19m 17m Smooth muscle I A 39 TZ Elasun layer 7 jConnective tissueL B 50 Net driving force for a fluid to leave capillary I 7 Blood pressure Bl E 25 3 in Q Colloidal osmotic Net driving force for Large Small Arterioles 11 Pressure fluid to reenter capillary anery artery e o Suggested readings Madigan M T and B L Marrs 1997 Extremophiles Scientific American April A discussion of the adaptations of many microorganisms that enable them to live in extremely hot cold acidic basic or salty environments Storey K B and J M Storey 1990 Frozen and alive Scientific American December An explanation of the adaptations of some ectotherms those that freeze solid in winter and survive that cause ice to form between rather than within cells thus protecting cell organelles from damage Atkinson M A and N K MacLaren 1990 What causes diabetes Scientific American July A discussion of how malfunctions of the immune system cause insulindependent diabetes a major disease that involves a hormone de ciency Cabe D K 2000 Saving hearts that grow old Scientific American June An explanation of how better understanding of atherosclerosisthe inflammation and buildup of fatty deposits in blood vesselshas triggered new approaches to treating the nation39s leading causes of death Perutz M F 1978 Hemoglobin structure and respiration Scientific American December An authoritative article on hemoglobin structure and function by the man who received the Nobel Prize for his work on the subject
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