Popular in Behavioral Ecology
Popular in Biology
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hiba Kouser on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 4700 at Clemson University taught by Michael J Childress in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 318 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Ecology in Biology at Clemson University.
Reviews for L01 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 01/27/16
L01: Principles i. Animal Behavior A. Prehistorical humans often made cave art that depicted animal behaviors because they were necessary for survival 1. Oldest and most necessary form of biology B. Aristotle: wrote about animal behavior (all of his ideas were not proven true) C. Niko Tinbergen (ethologist) defined animal behavior as: total movements made by intact animals D. Lee Alan Dugatkin (ethologist) defined animal behavior as: coordinated responses of whole living organisms to internal and/or external stimuli 1. Coordination plays a heavy role in animal behavior ii. Four Aims of Behavioral Ecology A. These are Tinbergen’s four types of questions regarding ethology (which was a predecessor to behavioral ecology) B. Split into two fields: 1. Proximate (how do animals behave) a. Mechanistic (how it occurs/ causation) b. Developmental (how it arises as an organism develops/acquisition) 2. Ultimate (why do animals behave this way) a. Survival value (adaptive significance) b. Evolutionary/Phylogenetics (how was this behavior been transmitted around different species and different generations) 3. Important to not just fixate on one but to look at all of the questions C. Example: what causes the zigzag dance of male stickleback 1. Causation(mechanistic): presence of females that are in the right posture, have the right body color, and girth (fixed action pattern) 2. Acquisition(developmental): correlates with sexually mature males(can only occur after male matures) but not really a matter of causation with high testosterone levels, is an instinct rather than learned behavior 3. Survival Value(adaptive significance): females prefer males that zigzag dance over males that do not (also prefer the color redthat males adopt when ready to mate) 4. Evolutionary history: dance is shared by 5 species; the dance + red color are a unique combo of traits iii. Historical Foundations A. Ethology (Historically ethologists focused on mechanistic causal explanations for stereotypic behaviors 1. Konrad Lorenz (19031989) a. Australian zoologist b. Researched: i. InstinctA behavior pattern that reliably develops in most individuals, promoting a function response to a releaser stimulus the first time the action is performed. Instincts were whole patterns of behavior such as drinking, eating, fighting, courting, literally “driven from within”. ii. Fixed Action Pattern (FAP) An innate, highly stereotyped response that is triggered by a welldefined, simple stimulus; once the pattern is activated, the response is performed in its entirety Can be described, has a specific appearance that can be written in words iii. Innate Releasing Mechanism (IRM) A special (hypothetical) neurosensory mechanism that releases the reaction and is responsible for its selective susceptibility to a very special combination of sign stimuli iv. ImprintingA form of learning in which individuals exposed to certain key stimuli, usually early in life, form an association with the object and may later show sexual behavior toward similar objects . 2. Niko Tinbergen (19071988) a. Dutch zoologist b. Researched i. Instinct ii. Sign Stimulus (SS) The effective component of an action or object that triggers a fixed action pattern in an animal c. Developed aims of ethology B. Comparative Psychology (historically, comparative psychologists focused on mechanistic causal explanations of plastic behaviors) 1. C. Lloyd Morgan (18521936) a. British psychologist b. Developed Morgan’s Canon: In no case may we interpret an action as the outcome of the exercise of a higher mental faculty, if it can be interpreted as the exercise of one which stands lower in the psychological scale [Don’t use a more complicated answer for a behavior if a simpler one exists] c. Believed in operant conditioning (instrumental): A kind of learning based on trial and error, in which an action or operant becomes more frequently performed if it is rewarded. i. Learning that occurs when a response made by an animal is reinforced by reward or punishment 2. John B. Watson (18781958) a. American psychologist b. Believed in: i. Behaviorism: a subdiscipline of psychology that studied the sum total of an animal’s responses, reactions, or adjustments to local stimuli and how past events affect future behavior ii. Tabla Rasa: Literally, a “blank slate” or state of the mind of an organism at birth under the theory of behaviorism 3. Ivan Pavlov (18491936) a. Russian physiologist b. Helped to develop the idea of classical conditioning with his experiment involving dogs i. Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning: Associative learning where the pairing of a conditioned and unconditioned stimulus to produce a unconditioned response can lead to a conditioned response in the presence of the unconditioned stimulus alone ii. Learning that occurs through experimental pairing of a conditioned and unconditioned stimulus 4. Karl Von Frisch (18861982) a. Austrian physiologist b. Honeybee waggle dance form of communication between honeybees C. Evolutionary Biology 1. Charles Darwin (18091882) a. British naturalist b. Developed the ideas of: i. Natural Selection: Also direct selection. The process that occurs when individuals differ in their traits and the differences are correlated with differences in reproductive success. Natural selection can produce evolutionary change when these differences are inherited ii. Sexual Selection: natural selection arising through preference by one sex for certain characteristics in individuals of the other sex 2. William D. Hamilton (19362000) a. British evolutionary biologist b. Helped to develop the ideas of: i. Kin Selectionnatural selection in favor of behavior by individuals that may decrease their chance of survival but increases that of their kin (who share a proportion of their genes) ii. Selfish herdindividuals within a population attempt to reduce their predation risk by putting other conspecifics between themselves and predators D. Nature v. Nurture 1. Nature a. Survival value, homeostasis, lab experiments, model species, sensory bias, Americans 2. Nurture a. Natural selection, evolutionary theory, field observations, fossil species, evolutionary history, European iv. Foundations of Behavior A. Natural Selection B. Individual Learning C. Cultural Transmission