Chapter 1 Study Guide/Notes
Chapter 1 Study Guide/Notes BIO 251
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Yousra Notetaker on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 251 at Eastern Michigan University taught by Kielb in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 102 views.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
CHAPTER 1 What is anatomy? o Anatomy is the study if the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another o What is physiology? Physiology is the function of the body- how the body works and carries out life-sustaining activities ▯ Human Hierarchy of Complexity 1. Atoms Tiny building blocks of matter that combine to form molecules, such as water and proteins. 2. Molecules Associate in specific ways to form organelles 3. Organelles Basic components of the microscope cells 4. Cells Smallest units of living things 5. Tissue Groups of similar cells that have a common function 6. Organ Discrete structure composed of at least two types of tissue (4 is more common) 7. Organ System Organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose make up the organ system 8. Organism The living human body ▯ ▯ Anatomical Variation ▯ Integumentary System o Hair, Skin, and Nails Forms the external body covering and protects deeper tissues from injury. Synthesizes Vitamin D, and houses cutaneous(pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat and oil glands. Skeletal System o Bones, Joint Protects and supports body organs and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement. Blood cells are formed within the bones. Bones store minerals. Muscular System o Skeletal muscles Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression. Maintains posture and produces heat Nervous System o Brain, Spinal cord, Nerves As the fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external muscles and glands. Endocrine System o Thyroid gland, Thymus, Adrenal Gland, Pancreas, Ovary, Testis, Pituitary Gland, Pineal Gland. Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use(metabolism) by body cells. Lymphatic System o Red bone marrow, Thymus, Lymphatic vessels, Thoracic duct, Spleen, Lymph nodes Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells(lymphocytes) involved in immunity. The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body. Respiratory System o Nasal cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Lung, and Bronchus Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. The gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs. Digestive System o Oral cavity, Esophagus, Large intestine, Liver, Stomach, Small intestine, Rectum, and Anus. Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to blood cells. Indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces. Urinary System o Kidney, Ureter, Urinary bladder, Urethra Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body Regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance of blood Male/Female Reproductive System o Mammary glands (in breasts), Uterus, Vagina, Ovary, Uterine tube Overall function is production of offspring Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones and male ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm to the female reproductive tract Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones The remaining female structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus Mammary glands of the female structures serves sites for fertilization and development of the fetus. Mammary glands of female breasts produce to milk to nourish the newborn ▯ Characteristics of Life 1. Nutrients o Taken via the diet- contain the chemical substances used for energy and cell building. 2. Oxygen o Because the chemical reactions that release energy from foods are oxidative reactions that require oxygen o Human body can only go minutes without oxygen 3. Water o Provides the watery environment necessary for chemical reactions and the fluid base for body secretions and exertions. 4. Normal Body Temperature o Chemical reaction’s continue if normal body temp is maintained o If body temp drops below 37C or 98.6F metabolic reactions become slower and slower then stop o If body temp is too high chemical reactions occur at a frantic pace and body proteins loose their characteristic shape and stop functioning. 5. Appropriate Atmospheric Pressure o The force that air exerts on the surface of the body ▯ What is homeostasis? o The ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even through the outside world changes continuously o A dynamic state of equilibrium or a balance ▯ Homeostatic Control ▯ To maintain homeostasis, communication within the body is essential. ▯ 1. Stimulus o produces a change to a variable (the factor being regulated). 2. Receptor o detects the change. The receptor monitors the environment and responds to change (stimuli). 3. Input o information travels along the (afferent) pathway to the control center. o The control center determines the appropriate response and course of action. 4. Output o information sent from the control center travels down the (efferent) pathway to the effector. ▯ ▯ 5. Response response from the effector balances out the original stimulus to maintain homeostasis. What is negative and positive feedback? o Negative feedback Almost all homeostatic control mechanisms are negative feedback mechanisms. These mechanisms change the variable back to its original state or “ideal value”. EXAMPLE: Body temperature Blood pressure Oxygen levels in blood Thirst sensation o Positive Feedback In a positive feedback system, the output enhances the original stimulus. EXAMPLE: Blood clot formation Milk production Uterine contractions during childbirth (contraction) Fever ▯ Anatomical Terms ▯ ▯ What is anatomical position? The standard body position The body is erect with the feet slightly apart Palms facing forward ▯ ▯ Orientation and Directional Terms ▯ 1. Superior(Cranial) Toward the head end or upper part of a structure of the body; above 2. Inferior(Caudal) o Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below 3. Ventral(anterior) o Toward or at the front of the body; in front of ▯ 4. Dorsal(posterior) Toward or at the back of the body; behind ▯ ▯ 5. Medial Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side ▯ ▯ 6. Lateral Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side ▯ ▯ 7. Intermediate Between a more medial and a more lateral structures ▯ ▯ 8. Proximal Closer to the origin of the body or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk. ▯ ▯ 9. Distal Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk ▯ 10. Superficial (external) Toward or at the body surface ▯ ▯ 11. Deep(internal) Away from the body surface; more internal ▯ ▯ Body Planes and Sections ▯ 1. Sagittal Plane that runs down through the body, dividing the body into left and right portions. Subsections of the sagittal plane include 2. Midsagittal runs through the median plane and divides along the line of symmetry 3. Parasagittal is parallel to midline but does not divide into equal left and right portions. 4. Coronal (frontal): Plane that runs perpendicular to the sagittal plane and divides the body into anterior and posterior (front and back) portions. 5. Transverse: Horizontal plane that divides the body into upper and lower portions; also called cross-section. ▯ ▯ Body Cavities ▯ Dorsal cavity: Bones of the cranial portion of the skull and vertebral column, toward the dorsal (posterior) side of the body. ▯ ▯ Cranial cavity: Contains the brain ▯ ▯ Spinal portion: Contains the spinal cord, which is an extension of the brain ▯ ▯ Ventral cavity: Anterior surface of torso; divided by diaphragm muscle into upper thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity. ▯ ▯ Thoracic cavity: The chest; contains trachea, bronchi, lungs, esophagus, heart and great blood vessels, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and nerves. Contains smaller cavities, too: Pleural cavities surround each lung Pericardial cavity contains the heart. The pleural cavity surrounds both the pleural and pericardial cavities. ▯ Abdominopelvic cavity: Imaginary line that runs across hipbones divides the body into the abdominal and pelvic cavities. Abdominal cavity: Contains stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, and intestines (small and large), ovaries (in female); peritoneal cavity (peritoneum) surrounds the abdominal organs Pelvic cavity: Contains colon, rectum, urinary bladder, uterus (in females) ▯ Organ Systems ▯ ▯ Skeletal Bones and connective tissues ▯ ▯ Muscular Striated skeletal muscle ▯ Integumentary Skin, nails, hair, glands in skin, nerve endings, and receptors in skin ▯ Nervous Brain, spinal cord, ganglia, nerves, sensory organs ▯ Circulatory Heart, blood vessels, blood ▯ Lymphatic ▯ Tonsils, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, and lymph fluid ▯ ▯ Digestive Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine (all in gastrointestinal tract); accessory (or associated) organs include salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder ▯ Respiratory Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs ▯ Urinary Kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra ▯ Endocrine Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals glands, endocrine portion of pancreas, ovaries, and testes (all secrete hormones into blood) ▯ Reproductive: Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, and vulva in females; testes, seminal vesicles, penis, urethra, prostate, and bulbourethral glands in males
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