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HDFS notes 4

by: Camryn McCabe

HDFS notes 4 HDFS 129

Marketplace > HDFS 129 > HDFS notes 4
Camryn McCabe
Penn State
GPA 3.81

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from 1/26 Theories; notes that were left out of the study guide
Intro to HDFS
Molly Countermine
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camryn McCabe on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 129 at a university taught by Molly Countermine in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views.

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Date Created: 01/27/16
HDFS notes 4: 1/26 Theories Freud o Psychoanalytic Theory of Freud- development is directed by the interaction of nature (drives/instincts, present from birth) and nurture (early experiences, primarily parents) o 3 structures involved in formation of personality o Id- present at birth  Our basic instinct to seek pleasure and avoid pain  Our need to express the self o Superego- begins in infancy, in place by 3-6 years old  Constraints placed upon infant/child by parents and society  “The rules” o Ego- begins to form in infancy  How we cope with our instinctual drives (Id) and demands made by parents and society (superego)  Reflected in our decisions, our behavior o Internal conflict- anxiety/mental tension that results from struggle between biological demands/drives and societal expectations o Ex.) Id- drive to be loved and protected Superego- neglect/abuse/rejection by parents (the knowledge that this is the way it is) Ego- must develop coping mechanism; create a way to handle rejection o 3 structure of the mind o Conscious mind- what we are aware of  What’s going on in the moment  Dominated by immediate activity/experience o Preconscious mind- stored info that can be brought to the mind by will or if triggered by something in the environment  Knowledge/memories  Everything we’ve experienced is stored somewhere in the mind o Unconscious mind- kept from our awareness  Memory/experience that was too threatening and becomes repressed  Primal drive that must stay in check  Implicit memories form in infancy/early childhood o Implicit memories- no conscious awareness of them; “known w/o being thought” o Drive our present behavior HDFS notes 4: 1/26 o Amygdala (emotional brain) develops before prefrontal cortex (thinking brain)  Development is dependent on experience o How we think about how to relate to people emotionally is driven by the way our amygdala developed o Goal of Psychoanalytic Therapy: to bring repressed material from unconscious mind to conscious mind Behavioral Theory (Skinner & Bandura) o Personality is shaped by our early experiences which involved learning from those around us o Skinner o Positive reinforcement- reward for desired behavior o Negative reinforcement- removal of aversive event when desired behavior appears o Bandura o Modeling- learning to behave by observing others around you  How a parent behaves is much more important than what parent says to the child about how he/she behaves  “Actions speak louder than words!” Vygotsky o Sociocultural Theory- focuses on how culture (values, beliefs, customs, skills of a social group) is conveyed to the next generation o Social interaction- (cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society) necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community’s culture  As adults (and more expert peers) help children master culturally meaningful activities, communication between them becomes part of the child’s thinking  Children use language within the dialogue to guide their own thought and actions, to acquire new skills o Children undergo stage wise changes  Ex.) Acquire language  ability to participate in dialogues with others  mastery of culturally valued capabilities appear  Ex.) Enter school  discuss language, literacy, etc.  reflection of their own thinking  advance in reasoning and problem solving HDFS notes 4: 1/26 o Dialogues with experts lead to continuous changes in cognition, varying from culture to culture o Research stemmed from Vygotsky’s theory shows that people in every culture develop unique strengths o Downfall of his theory: neglects the biological side of development Bronfenbrenner o Ecological Systems Theory- views the person as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment o Has moved to forefront of the field bc the differentiated and complete account of contextual influences on development it offers o Bioecological model- development is molded by the child’s biologically influenced dispositions joined with environmental forces o Envision of the environment- series of nested structures  Home, school, neighborhood, workplace  Each layer joins with the others to affect development  Microsystem- innermost level o Activities and interaction patterns in immediate surroundings o Bidirectional- adults affect children’s behavior, but children also affect adults’ behavior o Third parties  Mesosystem- encompasses connections between microsystems  Exosystem- consists of social settings that do not contain the developing person but still affect experiences in immediate settings o Board of directors, work schedules, maternity leave  Macrosystem- outermost level o Consists of cultural values, laws, customs, resources  Ecological transitions- shifts in context that are often turning points in development  Marrying, moving  Chronosystem- “time”; the temporal dimension of his model  People are both products and produces of their environments


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