HDFS notes 4
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camryn McCabe on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 129 at a university taught by Molly Countermine in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
HDFS notes 4: 1/26 Theories Freud o Psychoanalytic Theory of Freud- development is directed by the interaction of nature (drives/instincts, present from birth) and nurture (early experiences, primarily parents) o 3 structures involved in formation of personality o Id- present at birth Our basic instinct to seek pleasure and avoid pain Our need to express the self o Superego- begins in infancy, in place by 3-6 years old Constraints placed upon infant/child by parents and society “The rules” o Ego- begins to form in infancy How we cope with our instinctual drives (Id) and demands made by parents and society (superego) Reflected in our decisions, our behavior o Internal conflict- anxiety/mental tension that results from struggle between biological demands/drives and societal expectations o Ex.) Id- drive to be loved and protected Superego- neglect/abuse/rejection by parents (the knowledge that this is the way it is) Ego- must develop coping mechanism; create a way to handle rejection o 3 structure of the mind o Conscious mind- what we are aware of What’s going on in the moment Dominated by immediate activity/experience o Preconscious mind- stored info that can be brought to the mind by will or if triggered by something in the environment Knowledge/memories Everything we’ve experienced is stored somewhere in the mind o Unconscious mind- kept from our awareness Memory/experience that was too threatening and becomes repressed Primal drive that must stay in check Implicit memories form in infancy/early childhood o Implicit memories- no conscious awareness of them; “known w/o being thought” o Drive our present behavior HDFS notes 4: 1/26 o Amygdala (emotional brain) develops before prefrontal cortex (thinking brain) Development is dependent on experience o How we think about how to relate to people emotionally is driven by the way our amygdala developed o Goal of Psychoanalytic Therapy: to bring repressed material from unconscious mind to conscious mind Behavioral Theory (Skinner & Bandura) o Personality is shaped by our early experiences which involved learning from those around us o Skinner o Positive reinforcement- reward for desired behavior o Negative reinforcement- removal of aversive event when desired behavior appears o Bandura o Modeling- learning to behave by observing others around you How a parent behaves is much more important than what parent says to the child about how he/she behaves “Actions speak louder than words!” Vygotsky o Sociocultural Theory- focuses on how culture (values, beliefs, customs, skills of a social group) is conveyed to the next generation o Social interaction- (cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society) necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community’s culture As adults (and more expert peers) help children master culturally meaningful activities, communication between them becomes part of the child’s thinking Children use language within the dialogue to guide their own thought and actions, to acquire new skills o Children undergo stage wise changes Ex.) Acquire language ability to participate in dialogues with others mastery of culturally valued capabilities appear Ex.) Enter school discuss language, literacy, etc. reflection of their own thinking advance in reasoning and problem solving HDFS notes 4: 1/26 o Dialogues with experts lead to continuous changes in cognition, varying from culture to culture o Research stemmed from Vygotsky’s theory shows that people in every culture develop unique strengths o Downfall of his theory: neglects the biological side of development Bronfenbrenner o Ecological Systems Theory- views the person as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment o Has moved to forefront of the field bc the differentiated and complete account of contextual influences on development it offers o Bioecological model- development is molded by the child’s biologically influenced dispositions joined with environmental forces o Envision of the environment- series of nested structures Home, school, neighborhood, workplace Each layer joins with the others to affect development Microsystem- innermost level o Activities and interaction patterns in immediate surroundings o Bidirectional- adults affect children’s behavior, but children also affect adults’ behavior o Third parties Mesosystem- encompasses connections between microsystems Exosystem- consists of social settings that do not contain the developing person but still affect experiences in immediate settings o Board of directors, work schedules, maternity leave Macrosystem- outermost level o Consists of cultural values, laws, customs, resources Ecological transitions- shifts in context that are often turning points in development Marrying, moving Chronosystem- “time”; the temporal dimension of his model People are both products and produces of their environments
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