Chapter 12: Emotions, Stress, and Health
Chapter 12: Emotions, Stress, and Health Psych 1010
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Gabrish on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1010 at a university taught by Melinda Fabian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Chapter 12: Emotions, Stress, and Health Arousal, Expressive Behavior, and Cognition in Emotion Emotions – response of the entire organism including physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience o Full body, mind, behavior response 1. Does bodily arousal come before or after emotional feelings? 2. How do thinking and feeling interact? JamesLange Theory – theory that experience of emotion is the awareness of physiological responses to emotionarousing stimuli o Body arousal then cognitive awareness CannonBard Theory – theory that emotionarousing stimulus triggers simultaneously physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion o Conscious and cognitive experience happen at the same time Interpreting Emotions Two Factor Theory – theory that to experience emotion one has to be physically aroused and cognitively label that arousal (SchachterSinger) o Spillover Effect – emotions carry over into other events Study in 1962 injected men with epinephrine, which triggers arousal, and made them sit in a room with a confederate that as either acting agitated or euphoric Men tended to identify with the emotions of the person and interpreted the emotions of the other person to be spilled over Arousal fuels emotion, cognition channels it Emotions follow two different brain pathways o High Road – responses go through the thalamus to the brain cortex to be analyzed before sent out via the amygdala o Low Road – responses skip the cortex and go directly from the thalamus to the amygdala One study showed people have amygdala response to certain images that are flashed quickly without being aware of the image or their reaction Theory Explanation of Emotions Example JamesLange Emotions arise from our We observe heart racing after awareness of our specific a threat and then feel afraid bodily responses to emotion arousing stimuli Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts CannonBard Emotion arousing stimuli Heart races at the same time trigger our bodily responses we feel afraid and simultaneous subjective experience SchachterSinger Our experience of emotion Interpret our arousal as fear depends on two factors: or excitement depending on general arousal and conscious the context cognitive label Zajonc; LeDoux Some emotional responses Automatically feel startled by happen instantly without a sound in the forest before conscious appraisal labeling it as a threat Lazarus Cognitive appraisal The sound is “just the wind” sometimes without our awareness defines emotion Emotional Arousal in the Nervous System In crisis, the sympathetic division of autonomic nervous system mobilizes the body for action o Physiological, triggers activity in organs When crisis passes, parasympathetic division calms the body as stress hormones leave the blood stream Insula activates when experiencing negative social emotions BrainPattern Responses Emotions activate different areas of the brain’s cortex o Left hemisphere activates with positive emotions, right frontal lobe activates with negative emotions Experience can sensitize us to particular emotions Nonverbal Communication The brain can detect subtle expressions yet finds it difficult to perceive deceiving expressions o It is difficult to perceive emotions from heart rate, breathing, and perspiration Introverts tend to excel at reading others’ emotions while extraverts are generally easier to read Women generally surpass men at reading emotions and nonverbal behaviors Girls express stronger emotions than boys do Anger strikes people as a more masculine emotion People attribute women’s emotionality to disposition and men to circumstance Women are more likely to show empathy and describe themselves as sympathetic Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Women show much more emotion when watching different types of movies Gestures and Facial Expressions Paul Ekman studied isolated people in New Guinea and their facial expressions in response to certain statements o American college students could identify their emotions Facial expressions are universal o We are primed to quickly detect negative emotions o Abused people detect anger more easily o Blind people show same facial expressions Adapt to interpret faces in contexts Cultures differ in how much emotion they express o Cultural differences exist within nations Expressions amplify and regulate emotions Facial Feedback Effect – tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear, anger, or happiness o Forced expressions influence how we feel Behavior Feedback Effect – tendency of behavior to influence our own and others’ thoughts, feelings, and actions Basic Emotions Izard suggested there are 10 basic emotions that combine to form other emotions Pleasant/Positive Emotions Elated Relaxed Enthusiastic Low ArouHigh Arousal Sluggish Fearful Sad Angry Causes and Consequences Unpleasant/Negative Emotions of Anger Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Anger is caused by other people or small annoyances o A flash of anger drives the initiative to take action Chronic hostility is linked to heart disease o Anger leads to higher heart rate, sweating, rises in testosterone, and blood flow to the brain o Controlled anger can promote reconciliation Individualist cultures encourage people to vent o Groups see anger as a threat to harmony Catharsis – in psychology, the emotional release of aggression or the theory that releasing aggressive energy through action or fantasy relieves aggressive urges o This is a myth, expressing anger breeds more anger When people retaliate against a provoker, they calm down if o The counterattack is directed at the provoker Forgiveness calms the body o The retaliation seems justifiable o The target is not intimidating The best ways to manage anger are o To wait o To find a healthy distraction or support o To distance yourself FeelGood, DoGood Phenomenon and Positive Psychology Research Happiness leads to more life success o Better decision maker, more cooperative, healthier, more tolerant, social FeelGood, DoGood Phenomenon – people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood o DoGood, FeelGood Phenomenon Positive Psychology – scientific study of human flourishing with the goal of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive Subjective WellBeing – selfperceived happiness with life used with measures of objective wellbeing to evaluate quality of life Researchers are exploring o Positive emotions o Positive health o Positive neuroscience o Positive education Seligman views happiness as a byproduct of a pleasant, engaged, and meaningful life The three pillars of positive psychology 1. Positive wellbeing 2. Positive character 3. Positive groups, communities, and cultures Influences on Happiness Levels Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts We overestimate the duration of our emotions and underestimate our resiliency and capacity to adapt Individuals with more money are typically happier and enjoy better health Individuals in rich countries experience greater wellbeing Raising low incomes does more to increase happiness than raising high incomes o Gaining more money matters less Economic growth in affluent countries has provided no apparent boost to morale or social wellbeing AdaptationLevel Phenomenon – our tendency to form judgments relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience o We adjust to our neutral levels o Happiness is relative to our own experiences Feelings of satisfaction and dissatisfaction are judgments based on prior experience Relative Deprivation – the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself o Happiness is relative to others Predictors of Happiness Happy people tend to o Have high selfesteem o Be optimistic and agreeable o Have close friendships o Have work that engages skills o Have religious faith o Sleep well and exercise Happiness is not related to o Age o Gender o Physical attractiveness Genes, personal history, culture, and outlook create a happiness set point To improve mood and satisfaction o Realize that happiness does not come from financial success o Take control of time o Act happy o Seek work and leisure that engages skills o Buy shared experiences o Join the “movement” movement o Sleep o Prioritize close relationships o Focus beyond self o Record blessings and gratitude o Nurture spiritual self Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Stress Stress – process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging o Stressor – a situation we view as challenging o Appraisal – deciding if it is a stressor o Stressor leads to appraisal leads to response leads to coping Momentary stress can mobilize the immune system and help conquer problems Stressors o Catastrophes on a large scale o Significant life changes and transitions o Daily hassles o Low social status and power General Adaptation Syndrome – the concept of the body’s adaptive response to stress in three phases, alarm, resistance, and exhaustion (Selye) o Alarm Reaction – the sympathetic nervous system is activated o Resistance – hormones (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol) and the full body engage to meet the challenge (fight or flight) o Exhaustion – vulnerable to illness Prolonged stress damages the body Tend and Befriend – under stress, people provide support to others and bond to seek support from others o More frequent with women Stress and Disease Health Psychology – contribution to behavioral medicine Psychoneuroimmunology – study new psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together and how they affect immune system and health o Stress creates energy need and leads to a lower ability to resist infections The immune system can o Respond to strongly and attack itself o Underreact Surgical wounds heal more slowly in stressed people Stressed people are more vulnerable to colds Low stress may increase the effectiveness of vaccinations Stress alters immune system functioning leaving us less able to resist infection Greater stress leads AIDS to progress faster Coronary Heart Disease Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Coronary Heart Disease – clogging of vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries o More trauma leads to more inflammation Type A – competitive, harddriving, impatient, verbally aggressive, angerprone people Type B – easygoing, relaxed people Anger is associated with Type A who are more likely to have heart disease Type D – suppress negative emotion to avoid social disapproval Depression and pessimism leads to disease Stress triggers inflammation Chronically high cortisol levels damage the body Alleviating Stress Coping – alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods ProblemFocused Coping – alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor or the way we interact with it EmotionFocused Coping – avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to stress reactions Lack of Cortisol and Its Effect on Health Learned Helplessness – hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events o Study done in which an executive rat turned off shocks and a subordinate could not, the subordinate rat had more health problems Loss of cortisol leads to bad health with an outpour of stress hormones Those of higher status feel more control o Optimistic people have more control and cope with stress better External Locus of Control – the perception that chance and outside forces determine our fate o Less motivation to achieve and more anxious Internal Locus of Control – we control our own fate or free will o Achieve more, cope better, less depression o Locus – place SelfControl SelfControl – control impulses and delay short term gratification for greater longterm rewards o Uses brain energy o Can be improved with practice o Has individual differences o Marshmallow study in which children were tested on if they could wait to eat the marshmallow in front of them Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Kids that resisted eating the marshmallow had more success in school and socially Develop selfdiscipline in one area, this spills into other areas of life leading to more success and health and happiness o Having social support leads to health and longevity, calms blood pressure, reduces stress hormones, helps immune functioning, and manages painful feelings Optimism Optimists have more control, cope better, and have better health Optimists get better grades because they respond to setbacks with hopeful efforts, good study habits, and selfdiscipline Optimism is genetic, oxytocin enhances socialbonding Social Support Acceptance lengthens life expectancy Social support reduces blood pressure and stress hormones Social support fosters stronger immune functioning Close relationships give opportunity for “open heart therapy” and a chance to confide painful feelings Suppressing emotions can be detrimental to physical health Aerobic Exercise, Relaxation, and Meditation Aerobic Exercise – sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness and helps to alleviate depression and anxiety o Reduces heart disease, cognitive decline, early death o Improves the management of stress Relaxation can speed healing o Lifestyle modification – control diet, medication, and exercise for survivors of heart attack Meditation can reduce suffering and improve awareness, insight, and compassion Practicing mindfulness may improve health measures Mindfulness o Strengthens connections among regions in the brain o Activates brain regions associated with reflective awareness o Calms brain activation in emotional situations Faith Religiously active people tend to live longer o Religion promotes selfcontrol and healthy behaviors o Provides social support Hopefulness and meditation of prayer Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Promotes positive emotions
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