Psychology 110 Chapters 1&2 Week of 1/22/16
Psychology 110 Chapters 1&2 Week of 1/22/16 PSYC 110 - 008
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PSYC 110 - 008
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Mayes on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 110 - 008 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Alexander Malik Khaddouma in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see General Psychology - in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
1/22/16 Psych 110 Notes: January 22, 2016 Chapter 1: Psychology and Scientific Thinking (cont. – other notes 1/15/16) Thinking Scientifically - Foundations of scientific evaluation o Ruling out rival hypotheses o Differentiating correlation from causation o Falsifiability (Like to be proven wrong) o Replicability o Parsimony – Simplest Explanation is the best answer (Occam’s razor) - Example: o The Theory: The human sneeze reflex arises from localized pressure on the ventral abdominal wall during increased dorsal nasal pressure o The Hypothesis: Pressing your finger into your bellybutton while pressing your tongues on the roof of your mouth will make you sneeze History of Psychology - Descartes o “Pre-psychology” o Until later, psychology was indistinguishable from philosophy - Wilhelm Wundt o First psychological laboratory - William James o Interested in how psychological processes were adaptive o Influenced by Charles Darwin - John Watson o Behaviorism o Based entirely on learning, rejected mental activity o Arose in America - Cognitivism o Arose as a behaviorism response o Conceptualized mental activity as a form of behavior o Arose in America - Sigmund Freud o Psychoanalysis o Arose in Europe Chapter 2: Research Methods Heuristics 1/22/16 - Mental shortcuts that help us think efficiently and streamline our experiences o Example: “I before E except after C” - Representativeness Heuristic o Judging by superficial similarity to a prototype - Availability Heuristic o Estimating likelihood of something based on the ease with which it comes to mind o Example: Number of people who die by shark attacks each year versus number of transgendered veteran people of color in US prisons Validity - Random Selection o Procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate - External Validity o Extent to which we can generalize findings to real-world settings o Can Arise from random selection - Internal Validity o Extent to which we can draw cause-and-effect inferences - Naturalistic Observation
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