Notes from 1/26
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by America Seach on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL at Clemson University taught by Sears in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
12616 Intelligent Design Creationism Controversy around scopes trial of 1925 the geological evidence did not support the idea that the earth developed in 6 days got ned for teaching evolution in classrooms Butler Act was overturned in the 605 because it was deemed unconstitutional Arguments against evolution Darwin couldn t explain or gure out how complex things were developed such as an eye so people who were against evolution argued that since they were so complex that what makes up these things couldn t exist on their own Perfection in nature research suggest that eye patch does nothing with sensing images but with circadian rhythm part of an eye can be helpful The eye gradually changes over time if you take the battery out of a watch it stops working while if you take a way part of an eye it can still function but in a different way agella are missing quite a few things that a cilia has and it still functions correctly irreducible complexity does not rule out these examples Gene cooption crystallins of eye are unique for each type of animal but do the same thing you can nd these proteins outside of the eye that have many different functions More arguments 1 Evolution is unscienti c because its not falsi able and has no testable predictions disproved by Darwin s postulates 2 Because organisms progress from simpler to m ore complex forms evolution violates the second law of thermodynamics entropy a measurement of disorder so we are moving to disorder 3 No one has ever seen a new species formed so evolution is unproven and because evolutionists say that speciation is too slow to be directly observed evolution is unprovable and thus based on faith sticklebacks are example of speciation in nature Phylogenies 0 Known as evolutionary trees are hypotheses about the history of descent with modi cation from a common ancestor that produced a set of species or other taxa 0 Basics of reading a phylogeny Time proceeding from left to right Roots greatest common ancestors Bifurcations or nodes lead to descendants Transitions Tips or terminal nodes o Phylogenies can rotate around the nodes and it doesn t change the relationships 0 Evolutionary trees are hypotheses its well supported by 0 Derived characters help to draw trees the changes 0 Monophyletic groups sets of taxa that include an ancestor and all of its descendants shared derived traits identify them 0 Plesiomorphy is an ancestral character 0 Apomorphy is a derived character 0 Polytomies uncertainty about the order of branching in a phylogeny is indicated by these 0 Parsimony choosing the least complicated making the least number of assumptions has the least number of changes 0 Convergent evolution makes cladistics difficult similar things evolving in two different taxa o Phylogenies can be built off of genetics so things that look extremely different can actually be related 0 Astragalus is a synapomorphy of artiodactlys Each amino acid can show how related things are Sequencing data for phylogeny inference Ones that are uninformative are the ones that are the same for each group if it ends up inconclusive compare more sites When substitutions are involved in the diagram that represents how many base pairs are different between each group more substitutions means the longer the line and the bigger the genetic differences Neighborjoining a distance matrix method able to calculate genetic differences between all of the species of interest can t get any higher than 75 due to having 4 nucleic acids
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