New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

CHEM 112 Chapter 1 notes

Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
by: Ale Guzman

CHEM 112 Chapter 1 notes Chem 112

Ale Guzman
GPA 3.8

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover chapter 1 of the book and things covered in lecture, with relevant examples.
General Chemistry
Dr. Sherwin Montano
Class Notes
Chemistry, atoms and elements, states changes
25 ?




Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
Star Star Star Star Star
"Same time next week teach? Can't wait for next weeks notes!"

Popular in General Chemistry

Popular in Chemistry

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ale Guzman on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 112 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Dr. Sherwin Montano in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Illinois at Chicago.


Reviews for CHEM 112 Chapter 1 notes

Star Star Star Star Star

Same time next week teach? Can't wait for next weeks notes!



Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/27/16
SPRING 2016 CHEM 112 MONTANO Chapter 1 Matter  Properties of matter are determined by the properties of the molecules and/or atoms it is composed of o Ex. Water (H O) Hydrogen Peroxide (H O ) 2 2 2  Water is stable, drinkable, and if you boil it, it will just evaporate  Hydrogen peroxide is not nearly as stable, NOT drinkable, and if you boil it, it might explode.  These two molecules are one atom apart (one more oxygen is added to water to make hydrogen peroxide), but the properties of the molecules are completely different. Atoms & Molecules  Atoms o Submicroscopic particles that constitute the fundamental building blocks of matter o Free standing atoms are usually rare in nature (but usually found in labs for experimental purposes), and they are usually combined with other atoms to make molecules  Molecules o As said before, molecules are a combination of two or more atoms o Could be two of the same atoms, like O or2different atoms like H 2 Classification of Matter  Solid o Atoms/molecules are packed, they don’t move o Fixed volume/rigid shape o Can be crystalline (definite shape, may be transparent like a crystal) or amorphous (lacking a physical form or shape)  Liquid o Atoms/molecules are less packed together/can move around freely o Like water in a bottle, the water sticks together but if you move the bottle around, the water swishes around the bottom  Gas o Atoms/molecules have a lot of space, can freely move around o Assumes shape of the container (unlike solids and liquids, gasses are able to take up the entire space of the container it is in) o Can be compressible (since there is so much space between the atoms/molecules)  Within these states of matter, there are two different compositions: o Pure Subtances SPRING 2016 CHEM 112 MONTANO  Element: one type of atom by it self  ONE atom of oxygen  Compound: a molecule, collection of two or more atoms bounded by a chemical bond  A MOLECULE of oxygen, O 2  Water, H 2 o Mixtures  Heterogeneous Mixture  Not uniform in composition, you can tell there are different components to this mixture o Wet sand  Homogenous Mixture  Uniform throughout, but the molecules are not bonded chemically o Tea with sugar, the water in the tea has dissolved the sugar so it is the same throughout, however, the water, the tea, and the sugar are not bonded chemically so it is not a pure substance Separating Mixtures  Homogenous mixtures can be separated by distillation o By boiling the mixture, the atom/molecule with the lowest boiling point will separate first, then followed by the next with the second lowest boiling point, and so forth  Heterogeneous mixtures can be separated using filtration o If there is a insoluble solid in a liquid (like sand in water), filtering papers inside a funnel will trap the solid while the liquid seeps through the paper, thus separating them o A mixture like sulfur and iron (two solids) can be separated by using a magnet to catch the iron (since sulfur is not magnetic it will not be caught by the magnet) Chemical & Physical  Physical changes o changes that alter appearance, but not composition o State changes are physical: if you boil water, it will turn into a gas, but it is still water  Physical property o It is a property that a substance displays without changing the molecular composition  Odor, taste, color, appearance, melting/boiling point, density  Chemical changes o Things that alter the molecules chemical composition SPRING 2016 CHEM 112 MONTANO o When iron rusts, the Iron atoms turn into iron oxide, which is a completely different molecule  Chemical properties o A property that a substance displays ONLY when it is in the process of changing its molecular composition  Corrosiveness, acidity, flammability, toxicity Units of measurement  The units of measurement most commonly used in science: o Meter (m) used for length o Gram (g) used for mass/weight o Liter (L) used for volume (liquid-based) o Second (s) used for time o Kelvin (K) used for temperature o Mole (mol) used for amount of substance (atoms and molecules)  meters, grams, and liters have prefix multipliers to make it easier to specify how much of something you have o kilo- is 1000 m/g/L o milli- is 0.001 m/g/L  Units of Kelvin can be derived from units Celsius and Celsius can be derived from Fahrenheit: o C = (F – 32)/1.8 o K = C + 273.15 Significant figures  All certain numbers PLUS the first estimated number are significant.  leading zeros (found in decimals) are not significant o i.e. : In the number 0.0045, the 0 in the ones place AND the two 0’s in the tenths and hundredths place (after the decimal point) are NOT significant. o This number (0.0045) has 2 significant figures. (4 & 5)  trailing zeros WITH a decimal point are always significant. o i.e. : say you added an extra 0 to the end of the first example to make the number 0.00450. This number would have 3 significant figures INSTEAD of 2 because while the first three 0’s are not significant, the last 0 is because it is the estimated digit in this number (note in the first rule that estimated digits are significant). o Now say you added another 0, making the number 0.004500. This number will have 4 significant figures. (4, 5, and the 0 right after 5 are the certain numbers & the last 0 is the estimated digit)  trailing zeros WITHOUT a decimal point are usually not significant. o While the number 0.004500 has 4 significant digits, the number SPRING 2016 CHEM 112 MONTANO 4500 only has 2.  zeros in between non zero digits are significant. o The number 45001 has 5 significant figures. o The number 4050 has 3 significant figures. o The number 40.05 has 4 significant figures. o The number 40.050 has 5 significant figures. Significant figures in calculations  Calculated numbers should not have more digits than measured numbers  Do not include estimated numbers in calculations!  Significant figures in multiplication & division: o round to the smallest amount of significant figures o i.e. : 1.4451 * 2.04 = 2.9684 ♒ 2.97  even though 2.9684 is the actual answer, 2.97 is the correct answer if we are using significant figures, since 2.04 has the smallest amount of significant figures (3).  Significant figures in addition & subtraction: o look at the position after the decimal point and round to that position (use the number with the least amount of decimal places) o do NOT look at significant figures o 1.4451 + 2.0 = 3.4551 ♒ 2.5  2.0 is the limiting number in this case since it only shows up to the tenths place. Rules for Rounding  if the last digit is GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO 5, always round up. o 2.77 is rounded to 2.8  If the last digit is LESS THAN 5, always round down. o 2.73 is rounded to 2.7 Precision & Accuracy  Accuracy: how closely the experimentally measured value agrees with the “right” known value o the values do not have to be close to one another as long as they average out to be the right value  Precision: the experimentally measured values are very close to one another o The values do not have to be right to be precise o C = SPRING 2016 CHEM 112 MONTANO


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.