MUS121 Intro to Listening Chapter 1 Notes
MUS121 Intro to Listening Chapter 1 Notes Mus121
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Heller on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Mus121 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Benjamin Crofut in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 144 views. For similar materials see Into to listening in Art at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Chapter 1- Elements of Music Sound- the result of physical vibrations. Through the use of an instrument, created pressure differences become a wave of vibration, which vibration though the air, and eventually vibrate your ear drum. Define and vibrations produce a “tone” or “note” Inconsistent and irregular vibrations produce “noise” Musical Notes Synonymous with “tones” (definite and steady vibrations) Defined by frequency of their vibrations Fast- high pitch Slow- low pitch The maximum distance between the lowest note and the highest note of an instrument is call its Pitch Range Intervals- The distance or space between two pitches, within the range of an instrument Traditionally ordered as: Unison, 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , octave Octave- two pitches played together in which the higher pitch is exactly doubling the vibrations of the lower pitch Dynamics- defined as the volume or power of a musical sound Piano- soft, gentle sound Pianissimo- extremely soft, quiet Mezzo Piano- a moderately soft level Forte- loud, strong sound Fortissimo- extremely loud, strong Mezzo Forte- a moderately loud dynamic level “pianissimo, piano, mezzo piano, mezzo forte, forte, fortissimo” “pp, p, mp, mf, f, ff” softest to loudest Crescendo- gradual increase in dynamic over time Decrescendo/ diminuendo- gradual decrease in dynamic over time Timber- the sound quality of a particular instrument Timbre= tone color Rhythm- the ordered flow of music through time the experience of time as artistic, meaningful, and ordered fundamental to the creation of all sound, because the frequency of a sound wave must be defined within the context of time Beat- the regular, recurrent pulsation in music Downbeat- the first, and generally heaviest, beat within a group of beats Plain and obvious Upbeat- the beat that precedes the downbeat Direction and suspense Meter- the organization of beats into regular groupings Measure- a notational marking, in written music, used to indicate a unit of grouped beats The downbeat is always the first beat of a measure The upbeat is always last Downbeat + upbeat + number of other Beats in a measure = meter Types of Meter Duple Meter- meter containing two beats/ measure Ex. Mary had a little lamb 1 2 1 2 Triple meter- meter containing three beats/ measure Ex. My country tis of thee 1 2 3 1 2 3 Quadruple meter 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Syncopation- when a performer stresses a note that is placed between beats rather than directly on the beat In a 4 beat measure, the syncopated beats could be 2 and 4 Syncopation generates a feeling of forward direction and energy Tempo- the speed of the beat Fastest tempi generally creates character of high energy and lightness Slow tempi generally create character of solemnity and heft Common Tempo Markings In order of slowest to fastest: Largo (broad), grave (solemn), lento (slow), adagio (easily), andante (walking pace), moderato (moderately), allegretto (brisk), allegro (cheerfully), vivace (vivacious), presto (very quick), prestissimo (as fast as possible) Tempo Qualifiers Molto vs. Meno= more vs. less Poco vs. ma non troppo = a little vs not too much Fermata- a symbol indicating that the tempo should be temporarily suspended on a specific note Accelerando- gradual increase in tempo over time Ritardando- gradual decrease in tempo over time Rubato- freedom to alter tempo A tempo- return to original tempo Melody- a series of notes that add up to a recognizable whole Defined by motion through horizontal space The progression of individual pitch over time The intervallic relationship between notes, and groups of notes, indicate the meaning of a melody Larger intervals leap indicates greater expression than small interval steps Theme- A melody that serves as the starting point/ initial idea for an extended work Melodic Articulations Legato- a quality of melody in which the motion between note intervals is smooth (le-gah-to) staccato- opposite of legato, where the motion between notes is short, disconnected, and choppy (sta-kah-to) Elements of form in melody form- organization of musical ideas in time phrase- a short section of music that presents a single idea cadence- a resting point at the end of a phrase sequence- a melodic pattern repeated at a different pitch level/ when the intervals of a melodic pattern move uniformly up or down climax- the melodic high point of a song or piece Harmony- character and motion created when two or more notes are played simultaneously Defined by motion in vertical space Takes place in a singular instant Chord- The group of notes that make up a harmonic unit Chords Chord progression- a series of individual chords Indicates forward development and changing emotional content Consonance- a combination of notes that is considered a stable and without tension Open, smooth, easy Dissonance- a chord that sounds unstable and tense Crunchy, harsh, upsetting Resolution- the act of dissonant chord moving to a consonant one Chord Structure Tonic- the first note of a scale, the central pitch around which a specific music piece is organized Triad- a chord composed of three notes Fundamental chord structure for all western music Arpeggio- a chord broken up so that notes are played one at a time instead of together
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