Week 1 Human Anatomy Notes
Week 1 Human Anatomy Notes EEB 240
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stefanie Schumacher on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EEB 240 at a university taught by Dr. Alston in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 113 views.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Week 1 Notes— General T erms and Basic Cellular Anatomy Levels of Organization o Cells o Tissues o Organs o Organ systems Directional Terms~ Anatomical Position (front-facing, palms out, feet at a 90-degree angle) o Lateral- away from the middle o Medial- toward middle o Proximal- near point of attachment or stated/understood landmark o Distal- away from point of attachment o Anterior- toward front; before also called Ventral o Posterior- the back; behind also called Dorsal (top of foot and penis are considered dorsal or posterior) o Cranial (cephalic)- toward head also called Superior o Caudal- toward the tale Inferior o Superficial- structure that lays on top another structure o Deep- underlying structure All of these are relative terms depending on the point of reference Planes of Section o Sagittal Plane- divides body into left and right pieces Mid-sagittal- line of symmetry to make pieces on each side the same (we have bilateral symmetry) o Frontal or Coronal Plane- divides body into front and back o Transverse Plane- divides body into top and bottom Other Sections o Cross Section- across a short distance o Longitudinal- across the long section o Oblique- depends on the angle of the cut use when you don’t know how it was positioned in the body Cellular Anatomy Cells come in a variety of sizes Muscle cells go the length of the muscles with extremely small diameters Blood vessels have 1000s of cells lining them Cell Membrane (plasma membrane) o Phospholipid bi-layer Hydrophobic tails in middle of membrane (hates water) Regulates water traveling in and out of cell Hydrophilic heads toward inside and outside of cell 2 o Proteins Transmembrane/integral—within/through membrane Peripheral – touching inner or outer surface of membrane With sugar chains attached to outside= glycoproteins o Sugar-coating on cells = glycocalyx Determines blood type o Cholesterol Gives fluidity to membrane allows proteins to move Too much ends up in lining of blood vessels Cytoplasm o Two main components: Cytosol – fluid in cell Dissolved salts, proteins, amino acids, glucose, etc. Organelles o Non-Membrane Components Cytoskeleton—series of filaments of proteins (provide structural support) Microfilaments (small diameter) o Change shape of muscle so we can move Intermediate (mid diameter) 3 Microtubules (largest diameter; made of tubulin protein) o Can move things around in the cell Microvilli (smaller than cilia) Microfilaments within (allowing movement) Provide extra surface area Cilia Microtubules Can move with force Ciliated cells are not mobile in humans (they are fixed) In the respiratory system (moves toxins out) o Flagellum- tails on sperm, same as cilia (move on their own) Ribosomes Made of proteins and nucleic acids (RNA) Sight of protein synthesis (make proteins) Large and small sub-unit division Free-floating make proteins for cytosol Fixed (in rough endoplasmic reticulum) make proteins for membrane or for outside of the cell o Membranous Components Nucleus (in White Blood Cells it has arms and complex shapes) 4 Most common is a sphere in the middle of the cell o In Skeletal cells the nucleus is long and along the edge Has DNA and proteins that control the DNA o Histones—proteins that pack DNA in an organized way o Nuclear envelope (membrane around nucleus) has holes *** Red Blood Cells do not have a nucleus*** Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Rough—flattened, studded with ribosomesfor protein metabolism Smooth—tubular, no ribosomes fat(lipid) metabolism and calcium storage Mitochondria—double-layer membrane (folded inner membrane) Make ATP (cellular respiration) Golgi Apparatus—stack of flattened membranes; located at the end of the ER Final packaging of cell products and sends them out Vesicles Storage/transport Carrier of products to plasma membrane o Merge with membrane to dispose of waste and products outside the cell 5 Moved by cytoskeleton Lysosomes—contain digestive material (recycling center) Takes un-needed proteins and breaks them down into Amino Acids (the make-up of proteins) for future use Used in White Blood Cells to defeat pathogens Can perform apoptosis Peroxisomes—contain antioxidant enzymes (degenerative enzymes) Removes toxins from cell Comes from the ATP of the Mitochondria Cell Junctions Two cells can be held together because of proteins in membrane o Desmosomes Have points of attachment at proteins in the plasma membrane Can’t be separated but there is space between o Tight Junction Seals up space between cells Can make a barrier o Gap Junction Cells connected by “tube” Material can move from one cell to the other without going outside of the cells 6 7
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