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Chapter 10 Notes

by: Jacob Edwards

Chapter 10 Notes 1020

Marketplace > Clemson University > Chemistry > 1020 > Chapter 10 Notes
Jacob Edwards
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About this Document

These are the notes from the first week, the next weeks will be up soon
General Chemistry
Hickman, Thomas D
Class Notes




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Edwards on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1020 at Clemson University taught by Hickman, Thomas D in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 01/27/16
Chem 1020 Spontaneity Spontaneous- A process (reaction or phase change) that takes place without continuous energy from an external source o Example- A ball rolling downhill Nonspontaneous- a process that requires continuous input of energy from an external source o Example- A ball rolling uphill Enthalpy is effected by two factors; enthalpy and entropy. This is shown in the equation for Gibbs free energy. ΔG=ΔH-TΔS  ΔH= Enthalpy T= Temperature ΔS=Entropy  Entropy- A measure of disorder or chaos or randomness o Entropy increases as:  Temperature increases  Pressure decreases  Molar mass increases  Number of atoms in a molecule increases Laws of Thermodynamics 1. Energy is conserved 2. The entropy of the universe is continuously increasing a. Entropy drives molecular organization b. ΔS universe systemS surroundings c. If ΔSsurroundings i. (+) Spontaneous processes ii. (0) Equilibrium iii. (-) Nonspontaneous process 3. A perfect crystal can only exist at 0 K. This means that all atomic motion will stop. Entropy  In an exothermic reaction (-ΔH) the surroundings will increase in entropy  In an endothermic reaction (+ΔH) the surroundings will decrease in entropy Gibbs Free Energy ΔG=ΔH-TΔS If ΔG(-), the change is spontaneous If ΔG(+), the change is nonspontaneous If ΔG=0 the change is at equilibrium If ΔH and ΔS are opposite in sign, then ΔG will always have the same sign as ΔH If ΔH and ΔS are the same sign, then ΔG will be temperature dependent


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