CDE 232 Chapter 3
CDE 232 Chapter 3 CDE 232
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This 28 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan R on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDE 232 at Arizona State University taught by Ladd in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Human Development in Child Development at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
Chapter 3 Prenatal Development, Birth, and the Newborn Baby Conception and Implantation Figure 3.1 (From Before We Are Born, 6th ed., by K.L. Moore & T.V.N. Persaud, p. 87. Copyright © 2003, reprinted with permission from Elsevier, Inc.) Figure 3.1 Female reproductive organs, showing fertilization, early cell duplication, and implantation. (know each parts) Prenatal Development Periods Period Length Key Events ❖ fertilization ❖ implantation zygote 2 weeks ❖ start of placenta ❖ Foundation laid for all body structures and internal organs 6 weeks (42 ❖ arms, legs, face, organs, Embryo days ) muscles ❖ heart begins beating ■ “growth and finishing” phase Fetus 30 weeks Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. important to remember 3 periods and how occur Period of the Fetus ▪ Third month: ▪ organs, muscles, and nervous system start to become organized and connected ▪ lungs begin to expand and contract ▪ Second trimester: ▪ many organs are well-developed by 20 weeks ▪ most of the brain’s neurons are in place ▪ Third trimester: ▪ age of viability: 22–26 weeks ▪ fetus takes on beginnings of personality -whats going on during fetal stage or trimester (every 3 months) -age of viability: when can survive once born Sensitive Periods in Prenatal Development Blue = highly sensitive to teratogens Green = somewhat less sensitive to teratogens Figure 3.2 -how environment begins to eﬀect genetics -while baby gets mothers blood supply baby can receive certain thing (protegins) -centeral nervous system (brain and spinal cord) -positive: healthy diet, sleep, moderate exercise, prenatal care/vitamins -negative: smoking Factors Affecting Harm from Teratogens • Dose • heredity • age at time of exposure • Other negative influences RubberBall Productions -some babies are resilient and can resist some things -stress constricts babies blood supply= not good Teratogenic Substances ▪ Drugs: ▪ prescriptions nonprescription ▪ ▪ illegal ▪ Tabacco ▪ Alcohol © Minerva Studio/Fotolia ▪ Radiation ▪ Environmental pollution ▪ Infectious disease - Other Maternal Factors in Prenatal Development ▪ Nutrition ▪ Emotional stress ▪ Rh factor incompatibility ▪ Age © Dmitry Melnikov/Shutterstock ▪ Lack of prenatal health care -RH positive vs negative-ok when pos and pos or neg or neg but when one parent is pos and the other is neg the baby will make antibodies that are dangerous and can kill the mother - Maternal Age and Prenatal/Birth Complications Figure 3.3 - Importance of Prenatal Care ▪ Monitor general health: ▪ weight gain ▪ capacity of uterus and cervix to support fetus ▪ growth of the fetus © Poznyakov/Shutterst▪cTreat complications: ▪ diabetes preeclampsia ▪ Stages of Childbirth ▪ __dialation________ and effacement of the cervix ▪ ________ of the baby Delivery of the ___________ ▪ Stages of Labor Figure 3.4 -important** The Apgar Scale -once born is the baby physically healthy? important to see how viable they are in the beginning -this is how the babies are rated once born to see if they are healthy -anoxia= babies cant breath/ shuts oﬀ oxygen and why babies might be blue Natural, or Prepared, Childbirth ▪ Classes ▪ Relaxation and breathing techniques ▪ Labor coach: friend, relative, or trained doula © KAMONRAT/Shutterstock Birth Complications ▪ Anoxia (oxygen deprivation) ▪ Breech position © giorgiomtb/Shutterstock Medical Interventions in Childbirth ▪ Fetal monitoring ▪ Labor and delivery medication ▪ analgesics; anesthetics ▪ epidural ▪ Cesarean delivery © ARZTSAMUI/Shutterstock -cesarean births are increasing and is good to do if baby isn't doing well Preterm and Small-for-Date Babies Preterm Small-for-date ■ born weeks before ■ may be born at due their due date date or preterm ■ may be appropriate ■ below expected weight weight for length of for length of pregnancy pregnancy Interventions for Preterm Infants ▪ Temperature-controlled isolette Special stimulation: ▪ ▪ gentle rocking © Damon Yancy/Shutterstock ▪ visual or auditory stimulation ▪ touch, such as skin-to-skin kangaroo care ▪ Parent training in infant caregiving -pure o2 in isolette damages babies eyes an dis no longer used Infant Mortality in Thirty Nations Figure 3.5 (Adapted from U.S. Census Bureau, 2012.) Figure 3.5 Infant mortality in thirty nations -US mortality is 6.3 times the baby doesn't make it (due to cost of medical care) - Birth Complications • Severe trauma – long term difficulties • Mild to moderate trauma – dependent on environment • Resilience Newborn Reflexes ▪Rooting ▪Sucking ▪Moro ▪Stepping © philipus/Fotalia -dr check these when the babies are born -rooting: response to a nipple Infant States of Arousal ▪ Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep ▪ newborns: 50% of sleep; vital for CNS ▪ 3 to 5 yrs old: only 20% ▪ Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep ▪ Drowsiness ▪ Quiet alertness ▪ Waking activity and crying © Vasilyev Alexandr/Shutterstock -REM sleep- know if eyes are moving and not completely closed -good cause brain development -brain stem, spinal cord (central nervous system)- be eﬁt in g(stimulating retina) and send signals to brain therefore stimulating neurons in brain -cleaning up while asleep Soothing a Crying Baby ▪ Cries vary in form; intensity ▪ whimper; major distress ▪ abnormal crying, colic ▪ Soothing Methods ▪ Hold on shoulder, rock or walk ▪ Swaddle ▪ Offer pacifier ▪ Massage baby’s body ▪ Talk softly or play rhythmic sounds ▪ Combine methods © Jo Tunney/Shutterstock -crying is an indicator of something being seriously wrong (healthy crying vs unhealthy crying) -colic- not being able to digest and is very painful -under lots of pain for a long time- build pathways making it harder to be soothed - parent shave to learn about their child and ﬁnd out how they will fall asleep (tennis balls in dryer) Newborn Sense of T ouch ▪ Parents touch affects infants physical and emotional development ▪ touch releases endorphins ▪ Babies are sensitive to touch around mouth ▪ ▪ on palms and soles of feet ▪ Infants use touch to investigate ▪ severe pain -overwhelms nervous system with stress hormones ▪ can affect neuronal growth, pathways ▪ can be relieved with local ________, _______ solution, or physical touch Newborn Senses of Taste and Smell • Prefer sweet tastes at birth • bananas, chocolate • Quickly learn to like new tastes • early taste preferences shaped by variations in mothers amniotic fluid • Have odor preferences from birth • moms milk preferred over formula • Can locate odors and identify mother by smell from birth day 4 Newborn Sense of Hearing Newborns ▪can hear a wide variety of sounds ▪Prefer complex sounds to pure tones can distinguish between a variety of sound ▪ patterns when only a few days old ▪listen longer to human speech than to non- speech sounds can detect the sounds of any human language ▪ -babies come with lots of stuﬀ equipted in them that they could not have learned Newborn Sense of Vision ▪ Least developed sense at birth ▪ Retina cells fewer, less mature than 3-4 months old ▪ Limited visual acuity ▪ lens muscles (needed for focus) are weak ▪ Perfer colors (vs. gray,blck,etc) but poor at color discrimination ▪ ▪ Visual exploration: ▪ scan for interesting sights ▪ track moving objects New Family Adjustment ▪ Some hormones facilitate care giving: ▪ oxytocin (mothers) ▪ Hormonal effects vary with experience ▪ coupe relationship ▪ parents can be effective without hormones ▪ Challenges of early weeks: ▪ new roles ▪ changed schedule ▪ best outcomes when parents have positive, supportive relationships, sufficient income -certain hormones/chemicals are produced in moms and dads and change by making parents more sensitive and give more empathy -adults can be just as good parents even if don't have changed hormones (adopted) -chemicals are not necessary like animals (rats) -learned response in humans -
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