CPSY 230 Week 2 Notes
CPSY 230 Week 2 Notes CPSY 230
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Notetaker on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CPSY 230 at Ball State University taught by Staples in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Human Relations Development in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
CPSY 230 1/20/16 1/22/16 Ch. 2: Theories of Personality The Nature of Personality Personality – an individual’s unique constellation of behavioral traits Personality trait – durable disposition to behave in a particular way in many different situations Examples of personality traits: o Moody o Honest o Impulsive o Friendly The Big 5 (traits) O-C-E-A-N Psychodynamic Perspectives Freud and Jung FREUD 3 Main assumptions about psychodynamic theory: 1. Personality is governed by unconscious forces 2. Childhood experiences determine adult personality 3. Personality shaped by coping with sexual urges Personality divided into three structures 1. Id – instinctive, primitive. a. Operates on pleasure principle 2. Ego – decision-making component. a. Operates on reality principle 3. Superego – moral component a. Incorporates social norms about right/wrong Id, Ego and Superego are distributed across 3 layers of awareness 1. Conscious 2. Preconscious 3. Unconscious Freudian Psychoanalysis The three egos all want different things, heading for conflict, which soon causes anxiety and the defense mechanism, must kick in. Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development Can describe problems people have at any age though Example: If a person cannot stop smoking, Freud would say they are in the oral stage. JUNG Focused on the role of unconsciousness Unconscious made of 2 layers 1. Personal 2. Collective Archetypes – emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning He was the first to describe introverted and extroverted personality traits Behavioral Perspectives Behaviorism – theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study observable behavior Personality is a result of different response tendencies tied to stimulus situations Pavlov’s classical conditioning: o Neutral stimulus (NS) No response o Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Automatic response o Unconditioned response (UCR) o Conditioned stimulus (CS) Neutral stimulus + unconditioned stimulus o Conditioned response (CR) Skinner’s Operant Conditioning o Positive reinforcement Response is strengthened from positive stimulus o Negative reinforcement Response is strengthened from removing a stimulus o Punishment Response weakened from an unpleasant response o Extinction Gradual weakening and removal of a response Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory o Observational learning Learning from watching other’s mistakes/achievements o Self-efficacy – belief about one’s ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes o Third wave behaviorism **Skinner was concerned with response and measures, but Bandura used evidence to prove cognition mattered. Humanistic Perspectives Humanism – theoretical orientation that emphasizes unique qualities of humans, especially their free will and their potential for personal growth 3 important ideas: 1. Innate motivation to progress 2. Free will 3. Humans as largely rational, driven by conscious thought How is this different from psychodynamic and behavioral perspectives? Carl Rogers Self-concept – a collection of beliefs about one’s own nature, unique qualities and typical behavior Self, congruence Person-centered theory Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of needs Self-actualization Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Application: Assessing Your Personality **Know biological stuff Key Concepts in Psychological Testing o Psychological test – a standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behavior o Standardization – uniform procedures used to administer and score tests o Norms – provide information about where a score ranks in relation to other scores on the test o Reliability – measurement consistency of the test o Validity – ability of the test to measure what it was designed to measure 2 main types of personality tests: 1.Self-report 2.Projective tests – individuals respond to ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal aspects of their personalities
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