Anatomy of Speech & Hearing- Chpt. 1-Pt. 2 Notes
Anatomy of Speech & Hearing- Chpt. 1-Pt. 2 Notes SPHS 3025
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenzie Rattan on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPHS 3025 at University of North Texas taught by Janis Deane, Shannon Presley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Anatomical Bases of Speech and Hearing in Anatomy at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
-Tissues- group of cells that are working together. Types of Tissue- -Epithelial Tissue: *Outer layer of mucus membrane *Protection *Makes skin *Key- shortage of intercellular material *Glandular Epithelium: epithelium that secretes fluids. *Beating Ciliated Epithelium: have cilia (pushes the bad out) -3 types of Epithelial Tissue- -Squamous: look like scales & are flat. -Cuboidal: squares/cubes. -Columnar: columns -Connective Tissue: *Support *Made up of mostly intercellular material, matrix. *Solid, liquid, or gel-like *Glue-like stuff that holds the body together -Types of Connective Tissue- -Areolar Tissue: loose, elastic, found between muscles & organs. -Adipose Tissue: fat cells, shock absorber & insulator. -Lymphoid Tissue: tonsils & adenoids; immune system. -Fibrous Tissue: binds structures. -White Fibrous Tissue: ligaments, strong, dense, organized. -Yellow Elastic: move then go back to shape, found in cartilage. -Cartilage: great tensile strength (strong), goes back to shape, elastic. *Hyaline Cartilage: between bones, most common, smooth *Fibrocartilage: thick, shock absorber *Yellow (elastic) Cartilage: great elastic, nose, ear, & epiglottis. -Bone: cannot be pulled apart, hardest tissue, compact & spongy, great tensile strength, provide structure for the body, and length, shape, or irregularity. -Blood: liquid form, plasma & blood cells suspended in matrix. -Muscular Tissue: movement -Types of Muscular Tissue- -Striated (skeletal) Muscle: only one to move skeletal structures. -Smooth Muscle: in digestive tract and blood vessels, involuntary. -Cardiac Muscle: heart, composed of cells that interconnect like a net. -Neural Tissue: *Communicate between each other. *Specialized connective tissue. *Consists of neurons (in brain). *Neurons are specialized for communication. *Transmits information -Tissue Combinations: -Fascia: surrounds all of our organs, sheet-like membrane, woven together for strength, epimysium (fascia that surrounds muscles). -Ligaments: bands of connective tissue, binding together. *Visceral Ligaments: bind organs together. *Skeletal Ligaments: bind bone together, great strength. -Tendons: attach muscle to bone, connective tissue band, runs longitudinally, great strength; Aponeurosis (sheet-like tendon that connects muscle to body part). -Bone & Cartilage: points of articulation of bones are comprised of cartilage. Cartilage replaces bone for elasticity. (Rib cage, larynx, nasal cartilages). -Joints: connections/junction point between cartilage/cartilage, bone/bone, or cartilage/bone. -Types of Joints: *Diarthrodial or synovial joint- highly mobile/lots of movement *Amphiarthrodial or cartilaginous joint- limited movement *Synarthrodial joint- immobile/no movement at all -Muscles: groups of muscle fibers with a single functional *purpose. *Epimysium surrounds the muscles. *Endowed with a tendon for attachment to the bone. *Each muscle has nerve supply to allow stimulation (movement). *Form of muscle varies depending on its function. *Can contract only in straight line. *Origin: point of attachment w/ least movement. *Insertion: point of attachment w/ relative mobility. *Agonist: muscles that move a structure. *Antagonist: muscles that oppose a movement. *Synergists: muscles used to stabilize structures. -Neural Innervation: -Innervation: communication between neurons or between neurons & muscles. Innervation is either sensory (afferent) or motor (efferent). -Afferent Nerves: send information from a muscle to the central nervous system about the state of the muscle. -Efferent Nerves: send impulses from the central nervous system to the muscle, telling it to contract.
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