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EAR 117

by: Anna Olson

EAR 117 EAR 117 - M001

Anna Olson
GPA 3.5

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Notes for the second week of classes, 1/25 and 1/27.
D. Curewitz
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Olson on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EAR 117 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by D. Curewitz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 142 views. For similar materials see Oceanography in Earth Sciences at Syracuse University.

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Date Created: 01/27/16
January 25  notes Chapter 1: The Water Planet  Learning Outcomes: o Explain the “big bang” theory of the origin of the universe, and describe the  structure o Describe the origin of the solar system o List two possible sources of the water in the oceans o Review how we have come to estimate Earth’s age as 4.5­4.6 billion years  Origin of the Universe o Hubble Space Telescope (HST) o Big Bang model o Stars, galaxies, and clusters  Origin of our solar system o Collapse of a rotating interstellar cloud o Accretion to form planets  Extraterrestrial Oceans o liquid oceans on Jupiter’s moons, Europa and Callisto  Early planet Earth o Separation of dense and lighter compounds through repeated melting and  solidifying → layered system, ocean, and atmosphere o No free oxygen until photosynthetic organisms evolved Section 1.2: Earth’s Age and Time  Scientific Method in Earth and Space Science o Nebular hypothesis:  Supernova → dust cloud  Cloud Contracts  Contraction due to gravity  Equal in all directions  Spin = centripetal force outward  Greatest at “equator”  Zero at axis  Protoplanetary Disk  Proto­Sun  Starts fusion  Proto Planets collect material via collisions  How do we test this ???  “Exchanging Location For Time”  Synthesize and Categorize  Integrate and Synthesize large amounts of  information  What tool do we use to “Exchange Location for Time”  when thinking about solar systems and nebular hypothesis   Telescope January 27th Notes:  Relative Age Determination o Laws (from observation) of  Cross­cutting relationships  Older is cut by younger  Superposition  (In systems where particles deposit in fluid)  Oldest on the bottom  Youngest on top  Original Horizontality  Rotation and/or deformation  Lateral Continuity  Place A: (layers)  purple  orange  red  Place B: (layers)  blue  green  purple  orange  If you were to dig further down in Place B, red would be found  If you were to follow Place A to where there is a upward slope,  blue and green should be found  Absolute Age Determination o Radioactive Isotope Decay  Isotope → “Flavor” of atom, stable or unstable   Atom has protons (p), neutrons (n), electrons (e­).  “normal” atom has equal numbers of p, n, and e­ 12 0  ex: p=6, n=6, e­=6 (Carbon)  C  Change n: p=6, n=7, e­=6:  C3 0  p=6, n=8, e­=6:  C 0  unstable (radioactive) isotopes  Radioactive “Parent” Isotope  Radioactive Decay of Parent to Daughter  isotope is constant in rate (laws of physics,  quantum mechanics o 1C →  N4 236 o U → Pb o 40K → Ar o Rb → Sp o Th → Ph o Ra → Po  If a crystal (closed system) has parent  material that decays at a constant rate  time required for ½  parent to decay to  daughter is “Half­Life” o constant o Half Life = 1 million years  Time  # of parent atoms # of daughter atoms D/P ratio Age 0 1000 0 0/1000 0 yrs old 1 500 500 500/500 1 million yrs 2 250 750 750/250 2 million yrs 3 125 875 875/125 3 million yrs 4 62.5 937.5 936.5/62.5 4 million yrs  Daughter/Parent ratio (in a closed system) o 0/1 = 0 o 1/1 = 1 o 3/1 = 2 o 7/1 = 3 o 15/1 = 9 o 31/1 = 5 o 63/1 = 6 o 127/1 = 7  Age of Earth o History of estimate  o radiometric dating o 4.5­4.6 billion years


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