EAR 117 EAR 117 - M001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Olson on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EAR 117 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by D. Curewitz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 142 views. For similar materials see Oceanography in Earth Sciences at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
January 25 notes Chapter 1: The Water Planet Learning Outcomes: o Explain the “big bang” theory of the origin of the universe, and describe the structure o Describe the origin of the solar system o List two possible sources of the water in the oceans o Review how we have come to estimate Earth’s age as 4.54.6 billion years Origin of the Universe o Hubble Space Telescope (HST) o Big Bang model o Stars, galaxies, and clusters Origin of our solar system o Collapse of a rotating interstellar cloud o Accretion to form planets Extraterrestrial Oceans o liquid oceans on Jupiter’s moons, Europa and Callisto Early planet Earth o Separation of dense and lighter compounds through repeated melting and solidifying → layered system, ocean, and atmosphere o No free oxygen until photosynthetic organisms evolved Section 1.2: Earth’s Age and Time Scientific Method in Earth and Space Science o Nebular hypothesis: Supernova → dust cloud Cloud Contracts Contraction due to gravity Equal in all directions Spin = centripetal force outward Greatest at “equator” Zero at axis Protoplanetary Disk ProtoSun Starts fusion Proto Planets collect material via collisions How do we test this ??? “Exchanging Location For Time” Synthesize and Categorize Integrate and Synthesize large amounts of information What tool do we use to “Exchange Location for Time” when thinking about solar systems and nebular hypothesis Telescope January 27th Notes: Relative Age Determination o Laws (from observation) of Crosscutting relationships Older is cut by younger Superposition (In systems where particles deposit in fluid) Oldest on the bottom Youngest on top Original Horizontality Rotation and/or deformation Lateral Continuity Place A: (layers) purple orange red Place B: (layers) blue green purple orange If you were to dig further down in Place B, red would be found If you were to follow Place A to where there is a upward slope, blue and green should be found Absolute Age Determination o Radioactive Isotope Decay Isotope → “Flavor” of atom, stable or unstable Atom has protons (p), neutrons (n), electrons (e). “normal” atom has equal numbers of p, n, and e 12 0 ex: p=6, n=6, e=6 (Carbon) C Change n: p=6, n=7, e=6: C3 0 p=6, n=8, e=6: C 0 unstable (radioactive) isotopes Radioactive “Parent” Isotope Radioactive Decay of Parent to Daughter isotope is constant in rate (laws of physics, quantum mechanics o 1C → N4 236 o U → Pb o 40K → Ar o Rb → Sp o Th → Ph o Ra → Po If a crystal (closed system) has parent material that decays at a constant rate time required for ½ parent to decay to daughter is “HalfLife” o constant o Half Life = 1 million years Time # of parent atoms # of daughter atoms D/P ratio Age 0 1000 0 0/1000 0 yrs old 1 500 500 500/500 1 million yrs 2 250 750 750/250 2 million yrs 3 125 875 875/125 3 million yrs 4 62.5 937.5 936.5/62.5 4 million yrs Daughter/Parent ratio (in a closed system) o 0/1 = 0 o 1/1 = 1 o 3/1 = 2 o 7/1 = 3 o 15/1 = 9 o 31/1 = 5 o 63/1 = 6 o 127/1 = 7 Age of Earth o History of estimate o radiometric dating o 4.54.6 billion years
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