GEO110 Lec.02 GEOL 110
Long Beach State
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Rubio on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 110 at California State University Long Beach taught by Klaus Hagedorn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
GEOL 110Lecture 2 12716 Tectonic Cycle Refers to largescale processes that deform on crust and make landforms Driven by forces within Earth Involves the creation, destruction (recycling), and movement of tectonic plates Due to earthquakes, we have formation of new rocks, mountains, etc. Rock Cycle Rocks are aggregated of one or more minerals Recycling of earth materials and liked to all other cycles ● Tectonic cycle: heat and energy ● Biogeochemical Cycle ● Hydrologic Cycle: water for erosion and weathering Rocks classified according to how they were formed in the rock cycle Lithifies and forms a rock due to pressure as well Metamorphic can form when magma is involved Types of rocks: ● Igneous rocks: form from crystallization of magma ● Sedimentary Rocks: Rocks are weathered into sediment by wind and water ○ Also depositioned sediment undergoes lithification ● Metamorphic Rocks: Rocks are changed through extreme heat, pressure, or chemically active fluids. Hydrologic Cycle Movement of water due to water vapors, condensing, precipitation, gas, etc. Mainly the movement of water between atmosphere and oceans and continents driven by solar energy Processes include: evaporation, precipitation, surface runoff, and subsurface flow Water is stored in compartments like oceans, atmosphere, rivers, stream, etc: ● Residence time is estimated average time that a drop of water spends in any compartment ● Only a small amount of water is active at any given time Biogeochemical Cycle Transfer of chemical elements through a series of reservoirs Related to the three previous cycles: ● Tectonic Cycle: water from volcanic processes; heat and energy required ● Rock and hydrological cycles: involved in transfer and storing of chemical elements Rates of transfer of important chemical elements are only approximate: ~Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Science is body of knowledge that has resulted from investigations and experiments Scientific Method –Formulation of a question –Hypothesis is a possible answer to a question and is testable –Data is taken to test the hypothesis •Scientific investigation has improved understanding of natural disasters They are a result of natural forces Become Hazardous when people live or work near the process and landuse changes amplify their effects EX.) changing slope (grading),adding weight, irrigating lad, engineering river channel It is possible to control some of these processes to some degree: ● retailing walls, buttresses, piles, mesh ● most are NOT within our control Best approach to reduction is to identify the processes and delineate the geographic areas (mapping zoning) Uniformitarianism ”The present is the key to the past” Human interaction has an effect on geologic processes “The present is the key to the future” Environmental Unity One action causes others in a chain of actions and events Prediction Specific date, time and magnitude of an event Forecast Range of probability for a specific event Some hazards can be predicted; most can be forecasted Identify the location of probably event Most hazardous areas can bemapped EX.) Volcanoes and earthquake events are located Determine probability of event Estimated based onpast eventsand current conditions
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