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Anatomy and Physiology Week 3 Notes

by: UCNotetaker

Anatomy and Physiology Week 3 Notes BIOL2002C

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About this Document

These notes cover what we learned during week three.
Anatomy and Physiology 2
Dr. Nodzak
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology, two, one, University, cincinnati, Of, Science, nurse, nursing school, body, cardiovascular system, Heart, Cardiovascular, Blood, week three, week, three, nodzak, paul, paul nodzak




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by UCNotetaker on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL2002C at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Nodzak in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 2 in Science at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 01/27/16
Anatomy and Physiology II 1/26/16 Notes Thyroid Glands Hypothyroidism  Thyroid does not produce enough hormones  Fatigue  Weight-gain  Bradycardia (slow heart rate)  Constipation Hyperthyroidism  Thyroid produces too much hormone  Weight-loss  Tachycardia (rapid heart rate)  Diarrhea  Myxedemia (mucoprotein deposits)  Exopthalmos (protruding eyes)  Goiter (swelling of thyroid gland) Maintaining blood calcium levels  Calcitonin o Decreases osteoclast activity o Increases osteoblast life span o Results in bone deposition o Decreases blood calcium levels Parathyroid Glands Location  Posterior to the thyroid gland  4 embedded within each butterfly wing of the thyroid gland Hypoparathyroidism  Hypocalcemia  Flaccid heart muscle Hyperparathyroidism  Hypercalcemia  Could cause osteoporosis  Could cause kidney Stones Adrenal Glands Location  Atop kidneys Adrenal Cortex  Rises from mesoderm  Secretes Cortisone, Androgens, and Aldosterone Adrenal Medulla  Rises from ectoderm  Secretes Epinephrine & Norepinephrine o Epinephrine  Combines with adrenergic receptors  Sympathetic nervous system  Water soluble (functions through a G- protein) Both epinephrine and  Effects are short-lived norepinephrine have all the same  Vasoconstriction characteristics except:  Increases blood levels of glucose Epinephrine is involved  Breakdown of adipose  More commonly a neurohormone in the breakdown of adipose and is more o Norepinephrine commonly a  Combines with adrenergic receptors neurohormone, and  Sympathetic nervous system Norepinephrine is more  Water soluble (functions through a G- commonly a neurotransmitter protein)  Effects are short-lived  Vasoconstriction  Increases blood levels of glucose  More commonly a neurotransmitter ACTH  Regulates adrenal cortex hormones o Tropic hormone (secreted from anterior pituitary) o Controls hormones secreted by adrenal cortex o Stimulatory to adrenal cortex o Shutdown by negative feedback Hyposecretion (Addison disease)  Not enough aldosterone and cortisol  Hyponatremia (level of sodium in blood is too low)  Hypokalemia (level of potassium in blood is too low)  Bronzing of skin Hypersecretion (Cushing syndrome)  Secretes aldosterone and cortisol in excess  Weight-gain  High glucose levels  Redistribution of fat (buffalo hump; moon face)  Hirsutism (women develop facial hair) Pancreas Location  Along stomach and small intestine  Retroperitoneal (Deep)  Duodenum Pancreatic islets  Secretes hormones o Glucagon  Breakdown of glycogen and release of glucose  Alpha cells  Released when blood sugar levels are low  Then acts on liver to raise blood sugar levels o Insulin  Targets liver, adipose, and skeletal muscle  Uptake and use of glucose and amino acids  Beta cells  Released when blood sugar levels are high  Regulated by negative feedback and humoral regulation Diabetes  Type 1 o Insulin dependent o Juvenile onset o Autoimmune disease  Type 2 o Non-insulin dependent o Insulin resistant o Receptors are not functioning properly for insulin o Morbid obesity o Genetic Hormonal Regulation of Nutrient Utilization Immediately after a meal  Nervous Regulation o Parasympathetic  Hormonal Regulation o Insulin 1-2 hours after a meal  Insulin o Levels decrease  Glucagon o Increase  Cortisol o Increase  Growth Hormone o Increase Short-term Exercise  Breakdown of glycogen to glucose  Breakdown of lipids to fatty acids Long-term Exercise  ACTH released  GH released  Cortisol increase protein breakdown  Growth hormone slow breakdown of protein and causes lipolysis  Allows normal blood levels to occur Hormones of the Reproductive System Anterior Pituitary  Regulates secretion by testes and ovaries o By secretion of 2 tropic hormones  LH  FSH 1/28/16 Notes Chapter 19: The Cardiovascular System: Blood Functions of Blood  Transport of gases, nutrients, and waste products o Oxygen, carbon dioxide, processed food, & waste particles  Transport of processed molecules o Vitamin D from UV light  Transport of regulatory molecules o Hormones and enzymes that regulate processes in the body  Regulation of pH and osmosis  Maintenance of body temperature o 100.4 degrees Celsius  Protection against foreign substances o White blood cells  Clot formation o Due to the presence of platelets and clotting factors The Composition of Blood Components of blood  Plasma o 55%  Formed elements o 45%  made up of erythrocytes and the buffy coat Blood volume for males vs. females  Males: 5-6 Liters of blood  Females: 4-5 Liters of blood o Men have more blood because they tend to be more muscular than females. Plasma Components of blood plasma (Blood plasma is considered a colloid)  Water o 91%  Proteins o 7%  All other solutes (electrolytes, oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose, amino aids, fatty acids, vitamins, hormones, urea, lactic acid, creatinine) o 2% Major plasma proteins (From most to least common)  Albumin o 58% of plasma proteins o Transports bilirubin o Helps buffer pH o Helps maintain blood osmotic pressure  Globulins o 38% of plasma proteins o Fights infection o Transports lipids, hormones, etc.  Fibrinogen o 4% of plasma proteins o Other clotting proteins Serum  Plasma minus fibrinogen (Clotting proteins)  Used for testing in medical labs Formed Elements  Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells) o Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide o Can survive for 120 days o 4.2-6.2 mil/mm3  Leukocytes (White Blood Cells) o Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes o Compete nucleated cells  Thrombocytes (Platelets) o For blood clotting Blood Formation (in Red Bone Marrow) Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell  Can become any of the stem cells o Myeloid stem cells o Lymphoid stem cells Erythropoiesis (Red Blood Cell Formation)  Hematopoietic stem cell  Myeloid stem cell  Proerythroblast  Early reticulocyte (Has endoplasmic reticulum)  Erythrocyte (Anuclear; Sac of hemoglobin) Leukopoiesis (White Blood Cell Formation)  Myeloid stem cells  Myeloblasts (accumulate lysosomes)  Progranulocytes  Myelocytes (granules develop; nuclear shape forms)  Band cells  Eosinophils, Neutrophils, Basophils o Live hours to days  Lymphoid stem cells  Lymphoblasts  Prolymphocytes  (in lymph) Lymphocytes o Live days to lifetime  Myeloid stem cells  Monoblasts  Promonocytes  (in lymph) Monocytes o Live several months Thrombopoiesis (Platelet formation)  Myeloid stem cells  Megakaryoblasts undergo mitosis many times without cytokinesis  Produce a megakaryocyte  Breaks into platelets Erythrocytes  Biconcave discs o Increases surface area  Contractile proteins o Fibrous proteins for strength o Contractile proteins to squeeze through capillaries  No nucleus (anuclear) Hemoglobin  Heme o Iron-containing heme group o Red pigment in center  Globin o 4 globin polypeptide chains (2 on alpha; 2 on beta) o Quaternary structure  97% of non-H2O contents (1/3 of total cell volume)  No mitochondria (ATP is produced anaerobically in cytoplasm) Oxyhemoglobin  98.5% of oxygen in blood is bound to hemoglobin  The iron in each heme binds with one oxygen molecules Deoxyhemoglobin  No oxygen bound Carbaminohemoglobin  Amino acids of globin combine to carbon dioxide (23% of blood CO2) Carboxyhemoglobin  Carbon monoxide binds to heme (deadly) Fetal vs. Adult Hemoglobin  Fetal o 2 alpha o 2 gamma o Higher affinity for oxygen due to the types of globin in their red blood cells  Adult o 2 alpha o 2 beta


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