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Chapter 3

by: Brittany Woody

Chapter 3 EXP3604

Brittany Woody

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Perception; includes lecture notes, additional video notes, and notes from the chapter in the book. Be sure to also read the chapter in the book on your own
Cognitive Psychology
Dr. Stagner
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Woody on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXP3604 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Stagner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views.


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Date Created: 01/27/16
Monday, January 25, 2016 Chapter 3: Perception Lecture Notes - Perception is experience resulting from stimulation of senses - Perceptions can change based on added information and they occur with other functions - Direct perception theories: • bottom-up processing: piece together stimuli from environment, parts are identified and put together and then recognition occurs • perception may start in senses with incoming raw data - Constructive perception theories: • top- down processing: people actively construct perceptions based on expectations perception may start in brain based on knowledge, expectation, experience • - Can determine small pieces of a blurry picture by looking at context of the environment it is in; using prior experience and expectation - When you hear words spoken in a foreign language, your ability to pick out or understand certain words based on context demonstrates top-down processing - Speech segmentation: ability to tell where one word ends and where another begins - Direct Pathway model: model on how we perceive pain; an early model that emphasized nociceptors that would sen pain message directly to the brain; bottom-up model - More recent studies show expectations, attention, and distraction can affect how we experience pain in a top-down manner; placebo effect - Helmholtz Theory of Unconscious Inference (1860): top- down theory; our perceptions are the result of unconscious assumptions we make about the environment; use knowledge to inform our perceptions - Likelihood Principle: we perceive the world in a way that is “most likely” based on our past experiences - “Old” view of perception: structuralism; we add up all sensation from environment 1 Monday, January 25, 2016 - “New” view: Gestalt psychologists; the mind groups patterns according to laws of perceptual organization • Law of good continuation: lines tend to be seen as following the smoothest path • Law of pragnanz (simplicity or good figure): every stimulus pattern is seen so the resulting structure is as simple as possible; Olympic symbol is five rings overlapping, not nine separate shapes • Law of similarity: similar things appear grouped together • Gestalt laws often provide accurate information about properties of the environment; reflect experience; experience is important but does not overcome perceptual principles; Gestalt laws are intrinsic - Oblique effect: people can perceive verticals and horizontals more easily than other orientations; more verticals and horizontals seen in natural environment; more common for us to seen - Light- from- above assumption: light is usually from above; we use this assumption to perceive shadows as specific information about depth and distance - Bayesian Inference: proposed by Thomas Bayes; inferring what we are going to see before we see it; one’s estimate of the portability of a given outcome is influenced by two factors: • The prior probability (our initial belief about the probability of an outcome) • The likelihood of a given outcome - Some neurons respond best to things that occur regularly in our environment - Neurons become tuned to respond best to what we commonly experience; horizontals and verticals, experience-based plasticity (what we experience determines how flexible we are in our perception) - Greeble experiment: little response before training; after training (trained to name different greebles) there is more brain response - Movements help us perceive things in our environment more accurately than static or still images; seeing an animal move or viewing an animal from different angles can help identify what animal it is 2 Monday, January 25, 2016 - “What” stream: identifying what an object is; ventral stream; object processing (size, shape, color, texture); begins in occipital lobe with visual information, through temporal to frontal - “Where” stream: identifies object’s location; spatial processing (location, movement, spatial relations, transformations); occipital lobe to parietal lobe to frontal lobe - Lesioning in the temporal lobe makes object discrimination (what) difficult - Lesioning in the parietal lobe makes landmark discrimination (where) difficult 3 Monday, January 25, 2016 TED Talk: Different ways of knowing - Speaker is a high functioning autistic man; writer - “Aesthetic judgements guide and shape processes by which we all come to know what we know” - Speaker has synesthesia; he sees colors and emotions in numbers and words - Words can sound happy or sad (even foreign words that you do not know) Gestalt Principles of Perception - Man says he can see Virgin Mary in a lemon slice; Navy base in CA dorms were accidentally built in the shape of a Swastika (four L-shaped buildings) - Humans see patterns; wired to notice patterns- create correlations that do not really exist - A rock formation on Mars resembles a face; there is a theory that it was put there as a sign from other life - A happy face was also found on Mars; displays our tendency to create patterns - Multi-stability: when focusing on ground, you see one image; when focusing on figure, you see something else (like vase vs. two faces photo; or hollow cube can be going up or down) - Closure: we complete pictures in our mind to see whole picture; we can see square from four corners - Similarity: put similar things into groups or rows - Proximity: grouping things that are closer together - Effective websites group similar functions together 4 Monday, January 25, 2016 Chapter 3 - Perception: experiences resulting from stimulation of the senses - Inverse projection problem: the task of determining the object responsible for a particular image on the retina - Viewpoint invariance: the ability to recognize an object seen from different viewpoints - Bottom-up processing: perception begins at the “bottom” or beginning of the system, when environmental every stimulates the receptors - Top-down processing: processing that originates in the brain, at the “top” of the perceptual system - Speech segmentation: ability to tell when one word ends and the next one begins - Direct pathway model: how pain was explained in the 1950s and early 1960s; pain occurs when receptors in the skin called nociceptors are stimulated and send their signals in a direct pathway from the skin to the brain - Placebo effect: patient believes that the substance is an effective therapy - Likelihood principle: states that we perceive the object that is most likely to have used the pattern of stimuli we have received - Unconscious reference: perceptions are the result of unconscious assumptions, or inferences, that we make about the environment - According to structuralism, a number of sensations add up to create our perception of the face - Apparent movement: although movement is perceived, nothing is actually moving - Principles of perceptual organization: explains the way elements are grouped together to create larger objects - Principle of good continuation: “Points that, when connected, result in straight or smoothly curving lines are seen as belonging together, and the lines tend to be seen in such a way as to follow the smoothest path. Also, objects that are overlapped by other objects are perceived as continuing behind the overlapping object” - Law of pragnanz (also called principle of good figure and principle of simplicity): “Every stimulus pattern is seen in such a way that the resulting structure is as simple as possible” 5 Monday, January 25, 2016 - Principle of similarity: “Similar things appear to be grouped together”; similarity of size, shape, or orientation - Regularities in the environment: characteristics of the environment that occur frequently - Physical regularity: regularly occurring physical properties of the environment • oblique effect: verticals and horizontals being easier to see than other orientations • light-from-above assumption: we assume light is coming from above because light in our environment, including the sun and most artificial light, usually comes from above - Semantic regularities: characteristics associated with the functions carried out in different types of scenes - Scene schema: knowledge of what a given scene typically contains - Bayesian inference: the probability of an outcome is determined by prior probability and likelihood • Prior probability: our initial belief about probability of an outcome Likelihood: the extent to which the available evidence is consistent with the • outcome - Theory of natural selection: states that characteristics that enhance an animal;s ability to survive, and therefore reproduce, will be passed on to future generations - Experience-dependent plasticity: the brain is changed, or “shaped”, by its exposure to the environment so it can perceive the environment more efficiently - Perception pathway: pathway from the visual cortex to the temporal lobe - Action pathway: pathway from the visual cortex to the parietal lobe 6


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