Intro To Psychology, Chapter 2 notes
Intro To Psychology, Chapter 2 notes APSY.UE.0002
Popular in INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS PRINCIPLES
Popular in Psychlogy
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianda Hickey on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APSY.UE.0002 at NYU School of Medicine taught by Adina Schick, in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 117 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS PRINCIPLES in Psychlogy at NYU School of Medicine.
Reviews for Intro To Psychology, Chapter 2 notes
I had to miss class because of a doctors appointment and these notes were a LIFESAVER
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/27/16
Chapter 2 - Research Methods The Scientific Method - o describe and measure any phenomenon and behavior in the environment - To understand or predict the behavior or phenomenon - To apply 1. To formulate a Hypothese- stranslate a theory into something that can be tested a. Theory: a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observation b. Hypotheses: some kind of testable prediction, Usually derived from a theory c. Operational Definition: describe the actions or operation that will be used to control the variable. Establish what you mean by each oft the variable in the context of your study 2. Design the Study- 3. Collect the Data- Gather the information, choose from a number of options (Survey, data,) - kind of data researcher is looking for 4. Analyze the Data - Usually statistical, but there are different ways to analyze (Qualitative V. Analytical) 5. Disseminate Findings- Share with the general public in peer review journals Descriptive Research • Always start by describing when beginning research - collected and analyzed objectively and systematically • Case Studies - In-depth investigations of one individual or a small group of people • Naturalistic observations -observe behaviors as they naturally unfold • Surveys & Interviews - Gather Information about background, beliefs & behaviors Naturalistic Observation • Researchers observe • Do notengage in any way a t allwith the individuals they are observing ○ If you know someone is watching you, you will be reactive to the situation. • Used as a starting point to research • Advantage ○ Allows researchers to observe phenomenon as it unfolds -very accurate, realistic ○ Offers a snapshot of every day life • Disadvantage • Used as a starting point to research • Advantage ○ Allows researchers to observe phenomenon as it unfolds -very accurate, realistic ○ Offers a snapshot of every day life • Disadvantage Participants will become reactive if they know they are being observed There is no control over the factors that might influence behavior (you do not see a factor that causes your findings to be inaccurate/unnaturalistic) Surveys & Interviews • Questionnaires or interviews used by researchers to gather information about participants ○ Backgrounds, beliefs, attitudes, behaviors • Advantages ○ Gathering information about things that are difficult to observe ○ Gathering information from large samples (computer surveys) • Disadvantage ○ Based on self-report data ○ People tend to want to present themselves in a positive way § ex. asking someone if they are racist Correlational Research The goal of correlational research is to explore whether a relation exists between variables • A correlation is a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together • Correlations can be positive or negative Positive correlation Negative correlation (same direction) (opposite direction) • The direction of the relation is determined by the sign • The strength of the correlation is measured by the correlational coefficient ○ Can range from -1 to +1 ○ A 0 indicates that there is no relation between variables ○ The closer the number is to -(/+), the stronger the relation • Correlations do not indicate causation • The direction of the relation is determined by the sign • The strength of the correlation is measured by the correlational coefficient ○ Can range from -1 to +1 ○ A 0 indicates that there is no relation between variables ○ The closer the number is to -(/+), the stronger the relation • Correlations do not indicate causation Experimental Research • Looking at whether changes in the independent variable result in changes In the Dependent Variable ○ Independent Variable - an experiment/event that is manipulated to ○ Dependent Variable- thought to be influenced by the changed in the independent variable • Two groups of participates ○ Experimental Group § Receiving special treatment to effect the individual variable □ Ex. Parents receive no training ○ Control Group § Receives no special treatment (business as usual group) □ Ex. Parents receive no training The two groups cannot vary in any other way; otherwise they are ○ confounding variable § Confounding Variable: precluded you from drawing any cause and effect variable. □ The children in Control group 1 are 2yrs old, The children in Control group 2 are 3yrs old • Advantage ○ Allows researchers to draw conclusion about cause and effect relations • Disadvantages ○ Many research questions cannot be answered through a true experimental design - cannot assign a group of people smoking, gender, culture. Sometimes seen as being artificial - with so much control, often have to ○ remove situation from natural world, take to control lab Case Studies • Focus is on describing behaviors • Generally researchers will analyze a group of case studies to look for patters • Most effective as a starting point • Suggest directions for future research - perhaps larger studies • Advantages ○ Can be very revealing • Generally researchers will analyze a group of case studies to look for patters • Most effective as a starting point • Suggest directions for future research - perhaps larger studies • Advantages ○ Can be very revealing • Disadvantages ○ Can be Highly subjective - scientist is spending so much time with the subject that they become blind ○ Can be misleading Research Ethics • The use of deception is a highly debated issue in psychology ○ Philosophers see this as a black and white issue, if you can lie to do your own research why can't you lie to say your butt? Who is to say when lying is okay? ○ Is deception lying? • The key ethical guidelines as set by the American Psychological Association: ○ Avoid coercion ○ Participants must understand they can withdraw at any time ○ Participants need legal permission ○ Cannot be subjected to harmful conditions ○ If deception is used, participants must be debriefed ○ Maintain the confidentiality of the participants - not the same as anonymity Potential Pitfalls • Common methodological problems that can impact the findings of studies include ○ Sampling Bias: The sample of participants is not representative of the population from which it was drawn § Sample taken from general population scientist wants to study § Sometimes not representative of whole population • Placebo Effect: Participants expectations lead them to experience some change, even through they did not receive (effective) treatment • Social-Desirability Effect: Participants' provide what they see as socially desirable responses, to present themselves positively • Halo effect: Our perception of one trait of a person, object, or institution influences how we view it in its entirety. ○ Ex. Donald trump saying he could stab someone and his supporters will not turn against him • Experimenter Bias: a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained ○ Double-Blind Study: the conductor of the research nor the control groups know who are in the experiment/in groups against him • Experimenter Bias: a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained ○ Double-Blind Study: the conductor of the research nor the control groups know who are in the experiment/in groups Animal Research • Why do psychologists study animals? ○ To understand how different species learn, think and behaviors ○ To learn about people ○ To test treatments that might pose risks to people • A basic issue is whether it is right to place the well -being of humans about that of animals ○ Only 7-8% of psychology involves animals - usually includes birds and rodents, nearly never involves pain • Ethical guidelines include: ○ Avoid harmful or painful procedures at all cost ○ Decent living conditions
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'