New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Political Science Module 2 Notes

by: Savannah Tucker

Political Science Module 2 Notes PS 101

Marketplace > University of Kentucky > Political Science > PS 101 > Political Science Module 2 Notes
Savannah Tucker

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Includes vocabulary with identification examples for all vocabulary in the module, annotations of all of the articles, and a break down of the material covered in the module.
American Government
Stephen Voss
Class Notes
PS 101, political science, Voss
25 ?




Popular in American Government

Popular in Political Science

This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Tucker on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PS 101 at University of Kentucky taught by Stephen Voss in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see American Government in Political Science at University of Kentucky.

Similar to PS 101 at UK

Popular in Political Science


Reviews for Political Science Module 2 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/27/16
Thursday, January 21, 2016 The Founding Era Module 2 Purpose of the U.S Constitution: setting up the framework shaping the American Political System; how individuals interact with the national government, how the governmental subdivisions interact with the national government, and how components of that national government interact with each other. Many of the American Founders are pictures as larger-than-life heroes in order to form part of the secular regions that has bound together generations of Americans unified neither by blood nor by religious faith, the recipe for national unity. These beliefs can breed discontent and cynicism because our current leaders cannot compete. Revisionists claim that the Founders’ should not be respected, paints them as villains, and focus more on activists, slaves, and reformers. Provides students with no plausible explanation of the accomplishments of the U.S and neglects the essential humanity of the Founders. 2.1 The Revolutionary Experience The gap between the Declaration of Independence and the writing of the U.S. constitution was roughly eleven years. The gap was marked by war, social, economic, and political upheaval. Politicians struggled to govern a a collective group of states that had their own social, economic, and political characteristics. The revolutionary generation’s ideas about politics and government were not rooted in American soil, but rather in European history, a mixture of longstanding beliefs about the liberties due to Englishmen mixed in with some radical political notions sketched out by philosophers from continental Europe and shaped by practical experiences during the colonial era. Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence drafting heavily on a political discourse written by British philosopher John Locke. Some Americans at the time still supported the British crown and some didn't care either way. The Revolution did not start in a top-down fashion, it was the other way around. 1 Thursday, January 21, 2016 2.2 Amending the Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation were signed at the beginning of the Revolution in order to govern their new cooperative arrangement. Set up an independent country, but left the states within the confederacy as independent nations. States were sovereign and made most of the decisions for themselves with little to no influence from the federal government. The national government could not make decisions without the approval from most or all of the states. The national government, having very little authority, could not get much done. Political leaders knew they needed to grow the power of the government in order to unify the states. The majority of Americans were yeoman farmers, making up the backbone of the revolutionary army, and the ideas of the period. They were also in debt, and opposing the policies put in place by the new American governments. (ex. Shays Rebellion). The framers of the U.S. constitution was drafted by group of men much better off. They held the Annapolis Convention, not many states showed up. After Shays Rebellion, attendance was not a problem at the Constitutional Convention. 2.3 The Constitutional Convention Leaders from 12 American colonies gathered in Philadelphia in 1987, with a charge from the Continental Congress to propose alterations to the American government’s charter, the Articles of Confederation. General George Washington was elected as the chair of the convention, and had spent the summer drawing up a new proposed Constitution. 55 Framers participates, but only 39 signed it before sending it to the states for ratification. Each state held a ratifying convention, and by July 1788 eleven had signed off (enough to ratify it nationally). The first elections were held in 1789, George Washington was elected president, and within a year all 13 American colonies had approved the document and joined the United States. James Madison’s notes tell us a lot about the convention. 2 Thursday, January 21, 2016 In order to form a new government under the U.S. Constitution the framers had to: 1. Attract political support for holding a constitutional convention, 2. Keep outsiders from interfering with the convention while it was in progress, 3. Keep the convention delegates unified enough to agree on a proposal, 4. Write a document with the right balance between what the Framers wanted and what other Americans could accept, and 5. Roll out the proposal in a way that would convince the American states to ratify it. The Framers were primarily men who who believed in the inadequacy of the national government under the Articles of Confederation, they had many differences as well, but were all driven by primarily the same thing. 2.3.1 Large States vs. Small States Europeans use the word “state” to distinguish different countries or national governments from each other. The states were less part of a larger country than they were individual states before they united. The Articles of Confederation were more like a mutual defense pact. Each state received one vote in the Continental Congress and all of their legislatures had to agree before the articles could be changed. The states debated over how much power they really wanted to give up to a centralized government. Washington proposed to draft a new government instead of revising the Articles of Confederation. James Madison proposed the Virginia Plan (bicameral). William Paterson proposed the New Jersey Plan (unicameral). Both failed Roger Sherman proposed the Connecticut Compromise. In order to decide how the president would be elected, the Framers decided to form an Electoral College to vote for the president. 3 Thursday, January 21, 2016 2.3.2 Slave States vs. Free States The South was dependent relied on a slave-based economy. The South’s slave system promoted a plantation-based agriculture. Slavery was never mentioned in the Constitution, rather just indirectly agreed to phase it out. The North and South disagreed on how slaves would be represented and how they would be included in taxes. Southern states wanted them to count toward the population so they got more representation in congress, but not counted when determining how much taxation a state could be asked to pay. The North wanted the opposite. The Convention agreed that they would be included in both counts, but only 3/5 of a slave population would be counted. Many people think that the Framers viewed the slaves as only 3/5 of a person, when in reality it was the first clue to anti-slavery crusades that would begin years later, it was an attempt to lessen slaveholder power. 2.4 National government vs. the States The Constitution was formed through a series of compromises. The Founding Fathers knew that they would never pass their idea of an ideal government so they took what they could get. The Constitution did not: 1. Abolish the state governments and replace them 2. openly create a strong presidency or an active Supreme Court 2.4.1 Federalism as Practical Compromise The Founders had an issue deciding just how powerful the new government should be. Some would have liked a unitary system, where the national government held sovereign authority. Others would have been happy with the confederation, with a decentralized system in which the National Government was only a coordinating mechanism. They aimed somewhere in the middle with something that the states could stand behind and still have a purpose for state governments. 4 Thursday, January 21, 2016 They offered a federal system, setting some powers aside for the national government and others for the states, they proposed a system of dual sovereignty. The state governments had smaller sectors, local governments, that were “creates of the state” under Dillon’s Rule. Supporters of the constitution were referred to as Federalists. 2.4.2 Federalism in the Constitution The new Constitution made sure that it had enough power but not too much, giving the national government delimited powers. The Constitution is vague enough to be interpreted many different ways, so congress can decide how much power the national government actually has. Enumerated powers that were given to congress include: Spending Clause - allows congress to make and collect taxes toward the general welfare and in order to pay back debts. Commerce Clause - allowed congress to regulate commerce between states. Elastic Clause - to make laws that were necessary and proper to uphold the law. Full Faith and Credit Clause - Made states uphold the policies passed by other states. Congress also had control over how states picked members of congress. Guarantee Clause - offered the states protection (but really invited congress to meddle in state elections and election policies) Supremacy Clause - when there is a conflict between national and state law, national law trumps state law because the Constitution is the supreme law of the land. Anti-Federalists grew in numbers to preserve state rights, they called for a aBill of Rights that outlined what the National Government could not do. The tenth amendment made it clear that it had to operate under its enumerated powers only. Court Cases Elastic Clause - McCulloch v. Maryland (1819); Maryland was taxing banks that operated in Maryland but were not charted there; Does the national government have the power to create its own bank? Yes, while it is not essential, it did help the Congress carry out its responsibilities. 5 Thursday, January 21, 2016 Supremacy Clause - McCulloch v. Maryland; The national government over turned the law allowing Maryland to tax national banks, because they could tax it out of existence. Commerce Clause - Wickard v. Filburn (1942); Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, limiting how much wheat a farmer could grow; Filburn grew more than what was allowed but argued it was okay because he did not sell it across state lines, the congress argued that if everyone followed this example it would be out of control. Taxing, Spending, Borrowing, and General Welfare Clause - The national governments role in the economy has grown tremendously, forcing the states to rely on national government revenues, especially in the form of grants-in-aid or block grants, giving the national government much more power. The congress even bribes the states in policy areas. Money is power, the less taxes, the less power the government has. Ex. Alcohol taxation - national government withheld highway money until the states moved the legal drinking age back to 21 during the Vietnam War. South Dakota v. Dole (1987) - Approved congress to influence drinking age indirectly through financial penalties even though the 21 amendment prohibited the national government from controlling state policy. 2.5 The Ratification Battle Though the Articles mandated that any amendment made to them would need unanimous agreement, the Framers knew they would never get that kind of support from the states to charter a new government so they agreed that the Constitution must be approved by 9/13 states in order to take effect. Federalist states approved it quickly. A substantial minority of Anti-Federalists opposed the Constitution and even put out criticizing pamphlets. Negative publicity and the politics of Massachusetts, Virginia, and New York put the Constitution in danger. However the addition of the Bill of Rights was the compromise that finally ratified the Constitution. Vocabulary Sovereign - acting independently without outside interference 6 Thursday, January 21, 2016 Relevance - States under the Articles of Confederation were sovereign, which did not allow the National Government to make any legitimate decisions without their approval. The National Government had little power because in the place of a sovereign nation, they had a collection of sovereign states that each worked only in its own benefit, leading to a nation that was not unified. Yeoman- independent land owners who worked in agricultural occupations. Relevance - Yeoman farmers made up the vast majority of Americans at the time the Articles of Confederation were in place. They had issues with policies that the new American governments were passing, and it led to many uprisings, most notably Shays Rebellion. Shays Rebellion - a rebellion taking place in Western Massachusetts in 1986-1787, farmers protested taxes and debt enforcement, not actually led by Daniel Shay (his name simply put a face on the rebellion). Relevance - The rebellion scared leaders of every state into attending the Constitutional Convention, where they would draft the first copy of the United States Constitution, unifying the country. Annapolis Convention - A gathering in Annapolis Maryland during which state representatives could propose amendments to the Articles of Confederation. Relevance - Not many states were represented, so the Convention failed to improve the weak national government. Constitutional Convention - Held in Philadelphia in 1987, a new convention aimed at reforming the national government. Relevance - With improved attendance due to the aftermath of Shays rebellion, Framers worked toward drafting an entirely new government that would unify the states and strengthen the national government. Articles of Confederation - the original constitution of the US, ratified in 1781, which was replaced by the US Constitution in 1789. Relevance - The Articles of Confederation could not effectively unify the nation due to a lack of power in the national government. The Articles lacked an executive branch, and led to a weak congress, weak military, weak international policy (foreign policy), and internal disputes over taxes and borders. Framers - delegates to the Constitutional Convention who helped draft the Constitution. 7 Thursday, January 21, 2016 Relevance - The Framers drafted the document that we base our current government off of. Ratifying Conventions - Gatherings held in each state to debate the proposal of the new Constitution. Relevance - 11 of the 13 states had to ratify the Constitution before it became the law of the land, so each state thought carefully about it, and even proposed amendments where they thought necessary. Mutual Defense Pact - A promise between states or countries to protect each other from attack Relevance - The Articles of Confederation were more like a Mutual Defense Pact than they were the constitution. The states were more worried about sustaining themselves than unifying under a single national government, while they did agree to protect each other, they still acted independently of each other. Virginia Plan - proposed by James Madison; bicameral; did not balance power across the states but instead set up congressional representation so that it depended on the population of each state. Relevance - The Virginia Plan alienated small states and depended on proportional representation. The plan empowered congress to “call forth the force of the union” against states failing to fulfill their duties, and let the national government void state laws. It was unfair to smaller states. New Jersey Plan - proposed by William Paterson; unicameral; allowed each state one vote in congress. Relevance - with only one vote in congress, the small states were much better represented than larger more populous states, causing it to fail. Connecticut Compromise - proposed by Roger Sherman; bicameral; a compromise between the New Jersey and Virginia Plan. Relevance - set up the Senate, in which every state would have 2 representatives, and the House of Representatives, that would use proportional representation, allowing both the large and small states to represented fairly. Proportional Representation - representation in congress based on the population of the state. 8 Thursday, January 21, 2016 Relevance - this system was sometimes unfair to the smaller states because they had less representation in congress. This issue was rectified with the formation of the senate. Bicameral - Legislative branch with two chambers Relevance - allowed for more effective representation of every state Unicameral - a single chamber legislative branch Relevance - Allows for better representation of smaller states in congress. Electoral College - members of the electoral college were elected to vote for the President; displayed proportional representation Relevance - Larger states enjoys a greater influence in the electoral college because it was based off of how many seats the state held in congress. It was the first part of a two part election process where if there was no winning candidate the Electoral College, it would move on to the House of Representatives. 
 Slave-based economy - an economy that meets many of their labor needs with workers who were in bondage. Relevance - The South was dependent on slaves for their livelihood, their economy was held up by the slaves, so with their way of life being threatened we see the first glimpses of anti-slavery crusades and a foreshadowing of the Civil War. Plantation-based agriculture - A plantation economy is an economy based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few commodity crops grown on large farms called plantations. Plantation economies rely on the export of cash crops as a source of income. Relevance - The South’s main export were crops that were mainly grown on plantations farmed by slaves. Any threat to this would be a threat to their way of life and could potentially cripple southern businesses. Three-Fifths Compromise - Compromise when drafting the constitution deciding that 3/5 of the slave population would be counted for representation and taxation. Relevance - Contrary to popular belief, this was not a malicious way of saying that slaves were only 3/5 of a person, rather it was the first glimpse of the anti-slavery movement. Unitary System - a form of governments that only the national government holds sovereign authority. 9 Thursday, January 21, 2016 Relevance - One of the polar extremes that was represented during the Constitutional Convention when decided what kind of government we should have. This type of government would take all power away from the states, the Framer’s knew that this type of government would never be ratified. Confederation - A form of government that requires little input from the national government and relies more on the states. Relevance - This type of government gave too much power to the states and no enough to the federal government. Federal System - a government system that sets aside powers for the national government as well as the states. Relevance - This was a good compromise for the founders to propose to the states because it catered to the wants of both parties. Dillon’s Rule - A rule of judicial interpretation that a municipality (local government) may exercise only those powers expressly conferred by statute (state), necessarily or fairly implied by the expressed power in the statute, or essential and not merely convenient. Relevant - Just like the national government and the state government share power, the local governments and their corresponding state governments share power as well. However, the local governments are working under the state governments and may not disobey state law. Federalists (Federalist Party) - supporters of the Constitution. Relevance - The federalists were those who supported the drafting of anew government and believed that the articles of confederation made government too small. These were the people who fought for the new federalist system of government. Delimited Powers - a list of what the national government can do. Relevance - The federal system had only claimed the powered that needed to be centralized, so any powers that were not mentioned int he list of delimited powers, would not be possessed by the new government, this was confirmed in the Bill of Rights. Enumerated Powers - Powers given to congress in Article 1 Section 8 of the Constitution. Relevance - Enumerated powers are the vaguely defined powers given to congress. There is still room for interpretation. They include gathering revenue, 10 Thursday, January 21, 2016 spending it on the general welfare, regulation of interstate trade, and make laws to help carry out their responsibilities. Anti-Federalists - a party that opposed the federalists, and wanted to ensure the power of the states rather than that of the national government. Relevance - the Anti-federalists wanted lower taxes, therefor taking power away from the national government, and believed that the state governments would not survive the switch in government charters. Bill of Rights - a series of 10 amendments added to the end of the Constitution that define the rights of the American people, and what the national government’s powers are limited to. Relevance - Proposed by the anti-federalists, the Bill of Rights was the deciding factor for many states when it came to ratifying the constitution. It defines what the national government cannot do, ensuring that the national government will not get too big. Grants-in-aid - a subsidy furnished by a central government to a local one to help finance a public project, as the construction of a highway or school. Relevance - State governments became more and more dependent on these grants as the the national government’s control over economic life in the United States increased with time. Block Grants - a subsidy furnished by a central government to a local one to help finance a public project, as the construction of a highway or school. Relevance - State governments became more and more dependent on these grants as the the national government’s control over economic life in the United States increased with time. Amendment - an addition to the constitution Relevance - the option of amendments were what finally pushed the ratification of the constitution through, the states were allowed to propose amendments that were beneficial to them so that the constitution was tailored to work for everyone. Articles The End of History, Part II by Lynne V. Cheney 11 Thursday, January 21, 2016 The new Advanced Placement U.S. history exam focuses on oppression, group identity and Reagan the warmonger. This article criticizes the College Board for excluding extremely important historical figures, such as Ronald Reagan and Martin Luther King Jr. from the AP U.S. History test. The framework of the new test requires questions that take up sweeping issues, such as “group identity”, which leaves little place for transcendent individuals. A More Perfect Union by Jack Schwartz The Framers far exceeded the convention’s mandate; they devised entirely new system of government. After Shays Rebellion, representative of each state was much more willing to meet to revise the Articles of Confederation, instead they actually drafted an entirely new government system, the Constitution. Ratification of the Constitution took a long time because each state had their own wants and needs. A Revolution From Below by Alan Pell Crawford The break-away from Britain had less to do with high ideals than with the passions of the common people. 6 months before the first shots of the Revolutionary War were fired, a delegations of common people of Philadelphia called on Martha Washington. The Riot Act - Citing the Articles of Association, called for a boycott of British goods to protest the closing of Boston Harbor and other luxuries. Founding Fathers - term coined Warren Harding in 1916. The Founding Fathers were not nearly as clean and put together as is taught in history books. Two full years before the Declarations of Independence was adopted, people of the New England Country side had declared themselves ipso facto free and independent of Britain. O Captain, Our Captain by Andrew Roberts George Washington was a genius and a titan, but it was politics not war, at which he excelled. 12 Thursday, January 21, 2016 Washington is often made out to be a war hero, when in fact he was not much a soldier, but more of a leader that was better equipped to keep the army together than to win any battles. Cherry Tree? Let’s Negotiate by Aram Bakshian Jr. The Father of Our Country as a Sammy Glickish ‘man on the make’. Washington, who during the winter of Valley Forge was in danger of losing his position as commander in chief, worked tirelessly during and after the war to stake his claim in American politics. What He Saw at the Revolution by Robert K. Landers A firebrand as opposed to a strong national government as he was to British tyranny. Patrick Henry, who had flirted with treason for years before the revolution, stood for a small national government and independence from Britain. He opposed the Stamp Act (first direct tax imposed by Parliament) in the House of Burgesses. He refused to attend the Constitutional Convention because he “smelled a rat”. He claimed that the Constitution would lead to tyranny, which in some ways was true (whiskey take, suppression of rights). Henry “sowed the seeds of secession in the South”. The Father of American Politics by Richard Brookhiser James Madison’s role in drafting the Constitution is well-known. His role as a media savvy party activist is not. He established America’s first political party, the Republicans. He collected political allies with Thomas Jefferson. He founded the first party newspaper, the National Gazette. What Michele Bachmann Should Have Said About Slavery by Thomas Fleming The Founding Fathers knew that ending this evil was their great unfinished business. The Founding Fathers were not as concerned with abolishing slavery as they were ensuring the survival of our country. 13 Thursday, January 21, 2016 They did want to abolish slavery, as 1 in every 7 of Washington’s army was black, however they had too much on their plate already. George Mason - friend of Washington, demanded an immediate end to slavery. How Congress Bribes States to Give Up Power by James L. Buckley It’s time to end the more than 1100 grants-in-aid programs that sound one-sixth of the federal budget. The direct cost of these grants has grown from an estimated 24.1 billion in 1970 to 640.8 billion in 2015. Congress imposes financial penalties for not complying with policies it wants to pass, effetely bribing the states. The Supreme Court has deemed in legal in multiple cases including Steward Machine Co. v. Davis (1937) and in 2012 with NFIB v. Sibelius which upheld the ACA. The only way to resolve the problem is to terminate all grants. The Political Math: Washington - Dollars = Plus for States by Gerald F. Seib Power is moving away from the national government and toward the states, as evidenced by the growing national debt. Confidence in Washington’s politicians is declining due to their failure to come together to solve problems. 53% of Americans have a favorable opinion of their state government. 38% of Americans have a favorable opinion of of the national government. 61% of Americans opposed the taking away of collective bargaining rights go public unions. Old Enough to Fight, Old Enough to Drink by Glenn Harlan Reynolds Republicans can make up for a Reagan-era error by returning this issue to the states. Alaska State Representative Bob Lynn wants to establish a drinking age of 18 for active-duty service members. Many people argue that the drinking age doesn't stop underage people from drinking anyway. 14 Thursday, January 21, 2016 Research by economist Jeffrey A Miron and lawyer Elina Tetealbaum indicates that drinking age doesn’t save lives but does promote binge drinking and contempt for the law. Some view it as a type of prohibition in such a liberty loving nation. Drinking age is a Republican problem, under Elizabeth Dole the states were coerced into enforcing that the drinking age was changed to 21, which is contradicting traditional Republican values (a smaller national government). Americans Still Oppose Lowering the Drinking Age by Jeffrey M. Jones 74% of Americans reject lowering the drinking age to 18. 1984 - Reagan signed a law that withheld a portion of federal highway funds from states that did not have a minimum drinking age of 21 in order to reduce the minimize the amount of driving fatalities involving young adults. Some experts suggest lowering the drinking age in order to teach young adults how to drink responsibly. Liberals support lowing the drinking age 34% Conservatives support lowering the drinking age 18% Those who drink regularly support it 35% Those who have higher education levels support it 37% 15


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.