Nutrition Notes- Week 1
Nutrition Notes- Week 1 NFS 043
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NFS 53 Basic Concepts of Foods
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carrie Lanphear on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NFS 043 at University of Vermont taught by Farryl M. Bertmann in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 01/27/16
1/21 The Nutrients -Four are organic Contain carbon -Three Provide energy Energy-yielding nutrients o Carbohydrates- 4 cal/g o Fats- 9 cal/g o Proteins – 4 cal/g Vitamins and Minerals- assist in all body processes, digestion, disposing of waste, obtaining energy from nutrients o Provide no energy Water Can I live on Just Supplements? Elemental diets o Administered to severely ill people “Real food” is superior to supplements -Nutrient interactions Phytochemicals- color, taste -Physical contributions -Psychological contributions TPN got him the nutrients he needs, but he couldn’t feel “full” -Real food is always superior -provides emotional component The Abundance of Food to Choose From Whole foods Typical consumption -Fruits -Vegetables Types of foods -Fast, processed, functional, staple How to Recognize a Nutritious Diet Five Characteristics o Adequacy, can only get in body by consumption not enough iron can leave you anemic o Balance Calcium…poor bone development with lack of o Calorie control Energy intake should not exceed energy expenditure o Moderation Not abstinence Occasional treat won’t have effect on you o Variety Can’t have the same foods every day even if they’re good for you Factors Influencing Americans Food and Beverage Purchases Taste Cost Healthfulness 66% Convenience 58% Sustainability 52% The Science of Nutrition Nutrition o Field of knowledge composed of organized facts o Active, changing, and growing body of knowledge The scientific approach o Systematic process to answer questions Scientific challenge o Theories Types of Studies Case study o Clinical examples Epidemiological Study o Correlation, big data, larger land masses, data over time Intervention study o Blind studies, placebo study Laboratory study o Example, blood has been collected for intervention and it’s analyzed. Make sure the first group of people you collected from that they have agreed to you using their sample in a laboratory study. Important National Nutrition Research National Health and Nutrition Examination surveys (NHANES) o Asks people what they have eaten o Records measures of people’s health status Harvard Nurses’ Health Study o 238,000 dedicated nurse participants o cardiovascular disease, and diabetes o diet, physical activity, promote better health Harvard’s Health Professionals Follow-up study Changing Behavior Behavior change takes substantial effort Six Stages of Change Assessment and goals o Realistic goals Obstacles to change o Competence o Confidence o Motivation Identifying Valid Nutrition Information Characteristics of scientific research o Properly designed scientific experiments o Inadequacy of anecdotal evidence o Animal findings applied to humans o Careful with generalizations 1/26 Ch. 2 Nutrition tools- standards and guidelines Nutrient recommendations Standards for healthy people’s energy and nutrient intakes Dietary reference intakes (DRI) o Standards used in the U.S. and canda o Set values Vitamins and minerals Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins Fiber, water, and energy Daily values Nutrient Recommendations Standards for healthy people;s energy and nutrient intakes Dietary reference intakes (DRI) o Dietary components with set values o Values RDA- recommended dietary allowances Al- adequate intakes UL- tolerable upper levels (safety) EAR- estimated average requirements (based on research and policy) AMDR- acceptable macro-nutrient distribution range Goals of DRI committee o Setting recommended intakes values- RDA & Al Used by individuals for nutrient intake goals RDA Solid experimental evidence Meets needs of almost all healthy people Al- scientific evidence and educated guesswork o Facilitating nutrient research & policy- EAR Requirements for life stages and genders Nutrient Recommendations Goals for DRI committee o Establish safety guidelines- UL Identification of potentially toxic levels Danger zones AMDR- Calorie percentage ranges o Intake ranges for energy-yielding nutrients o Expressed as percentage of total Carbohydrate: 45-65% of kCals CHO Fat: 20-35% of kCals FAT Protein 10-35% kCals PRO Consuming too much of a nutrient endangers health Understanding the DRI Intake Recommendations Differences between people Put DRI recommended intakes into perspective DRI are designed for healthy people Ranges are conservative so they stay below the level of toxicity Establishing DRI Values- An RDA Example Balance Study- Body intake and excretion of a nutrient to see how much nutrient it requires to reach a balance. Accounting for needs- Making a decision- Setting Energy Requirements Estimated Requirement (EER) energy containing nutrients (macronutrients energy bearing nutrients…vitamins and minerals) o Reflects a balancing act- enough food energy is critical to support health and too much energy in and not enough out causes weight gain and associated diseases. Energy to support health and life o No UL for energy Daily Values Found on food labels Apply to the “average” person o Eating 2,000 calories a day Allow for comparisons among foods o Not nutrient intake goals Have not changed in response to new research o DRI values have changed over the years Science Guidelines for Americans Science based advice o Promote health o Reduce risk of major chronic disease o Apply to most people age 2 and older Dietary Guidelines for Americans Choose nutritious foods o Based on USDA MyPlate Supplements o Balance healthy calories and physical activity to achieve a healthy weight Dietary Guidelines 1.)Follow a healthy eating pattern across the lifespan 2.)Focus on variety, nutrient density, and amount 3.)Limit calories from added sugars and saturated fats and reduce sodium 4.)Shift to a healthier food and beverage choices 5.)Support healthy eating patterns for all Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015- A Healthy eating pattern includes: A variety of vegetables from all of the subgroups Fruits, especially whole fruits Grains, at least 50% whole grains Fat-free or low-fat dairy A variety of protein foods Oils A Healthy eating pattern limits: Saturated and trans fats Added sugars Sodium # Drink Equivalence calculation (16fl oz) (0.08)/ 0.6 fl oz= 2.1 drink equivalents U.S. Diet and Dietary Guidelines Compared Healthy eating Index (HEI) o Yields a score Current American diet: 58 out of 100 o Americans need to choose less of the refined grains, saturated and trans fats, and added sugar etc o Choose MORE vegetables o Many need to reduce calorie intake and be more active Exam stuff Key Consumer Message: Make at least half your grains whole grains. Wheat, rice, oats, corn meal, barley Bread, pasta, cereal, tortillas, gritz Divided into whole grains and refined grains Whole grain contains entire grain kernel (bran, endosperm, germ) o Whole wheat flour o Oat meal o Whole corn meal o Brown rice Refined Grains- removes bran and germ o Gives grains a better texture o Removes dietary fiber, and B vitamins o White flower o White bread o White rice Enriched grains- when nutrients are added back after processing o Fiber is NOT added back to refined grains Key consumer message: Make half of your plate fruits and vegetables
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