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by: Wade Carter

CHEMISTRY II Week 1 Notes CHEM 1123

Marketplace > University of Arkansas > CHEM 1123 > CHEMISTRY II Week 1 Notes
Wade Carter
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Bonding, Molecular Geometry, Comparing States of Matter, Intermolecular Forces
University Chemistry II
Lorraine Brewer
Class Notes
Chemistry, Chemistry II




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Wade Carter on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1123 at University of Arkansas taught by Lorraine Brewer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 148 views.


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Date Created: 01/27/16
Chemistry II Bonding:  A chemical bond is a force that holds groups of atoms together and makes them function  as a unit. o Ionic Bonding­ electrons are transferred o Covalent Bonding­electrons are shared equally Electronegativity: The ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself.  If the difference in electronegativity is less than 0.4, the bond is polarized.  The strength of a bond increases as the difference in electronegativity values increases.  Electronegativity increases up a column and left to right across a row on the periodic  table. o The most electronegative element is Fluorine (4.0) o The least electronegative element is Cesium and Francium (0.7) Bond Polarity Electronegativity Difference Bond Type 0.0­0.4 Covalent 0.4­2.0 Polar covalent 2.0+ Ionic Geometry: Number of Electron Number of Lone Groups Electron Geometry Pairs Molecular Geometry 2 Linear 0 linear 3 Trigonal Planar 0 Trigonal planar 3 Trigonal Planar 1 Bent 4 Tetrahedral 0 Tetrahedral 4 Tetrahedral 1 Trigonal pyramidal 4 Tetrahedral 2 Bent 5 Trigonal bipyramidal 0 Trigonal bipyramidal 5 Trigonal bipyramidal 1 Seesaw 5 Trigonal bipyramidal 2 T­shaped 5 Trigonal bipyramidal 3 Linear 6 Octahedral 0 Octahedral 6 Octahedral 1 Square pyramidal 6 Octahedral 2 Square planar 1 Chemistry II Solids, liquids and gases at the molecular level:  The state of a sample of matter depends on the strength of the intermolecular forces  between the particles relative to the amount of thermal energy in the sample.  Molecules and atoms are in constant random motion that increases with increasing  temperature. As temperature increases, a change of state may occur. Strength of State Density Shape Volume Intermolecular Forces Gas Low Indefinite Indefinite Weak Liquid High Indefinite Definite Moderate Solid High Definite Definite Strong Intermolecular Forces:  Intramolecular Bonding o Bonds that form “within” the molecule o Molecules are formed by sharing electrons between atoms.  Intermolecular Bonding o Forces that occur between molecules. o Dipole­dipole forces, hydrogen bonding, London dispersion forces, ect… o  London dispersion forces­ attractions between molecules caused by temporary polarity in the molecules due to unequal electron distribution. o Usually, these forces are the weakest forces and are most dominant in nonpolar  molecules. o  Dipole­dipole attraction­ attractive forces caused by permanent polarity in the molecules  due to their structure  Hydrogen bonding­ a very strong type of dipole­dipole attraction that occurs when  hydrogen bonds with an extremely electronegative atom. (These atoms are N,O,and F) 2


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