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Chapter 1 Notes

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by: Sydney Thornton

Chapter 1 Notes 1014-004

Sydney Thornton
Arkansas Tech University

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These notes were covered the first week of classes, extremely detailed.
Intro to biological sciences
Blake Whitt
Class Notes
intro to biology
25 ?




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"I had to miss class because of a doctors appointment and these notes were a LIFESAVER"

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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Thornton on Wednesday January 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1014-004 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Blake Whitt in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Intro to biological sciences in Biology at Arkansas Tech University.

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Date Created: 01/27/16
Taken from textbook: “Biology for the Informed Citizen,” by Green and Bozzone Chapter 1 Terms and Information  “The Infidelity Gene” o AVPR1a gene makes a particular “receptor” in the brain, and the receptor  transports the hormone vasopressin to the brain.  o Vassopressin strengthens pair bonding; however, there are different versions of  this gene that differ in humans.  Features of Life o Metabolism­ life takes in energy and reuses it to promote and strengthen its  personal survival and reproduction.  o Inheritance/ Reproduction­ life makes more of itself, and each individual life form receives its DNA from its parents.  o Evolution/ Change­ life shares a common ancestry, throughout time evolution has  brought on change as well as diversity to species. Evolution is the central theme  to biology it is the basis for our entire understanding of life.  o Diversity­ a product of evolution, differences in species allow higher and more  successful survival rates for differing species.   How Do Organisms Function? o It is necessary for us to understand the fundamental concepts of chemistry.   Atoms o The fundamental building blocks of everything o Composed of subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. o Protons­ contain a positive charge, the number of protons is the atomic number  and it resides in the nucleus of an atom.  o Neutrons­ contain no charge, the number of neutrons contributes to the mass  number, and it resides in the nucleus of the atom.  o Electrons­ contain a negative charge, they are electrically attracted to the protons  in the pathways called orbitals.   Isotopes o An atom that does not contain the same number of neutrons as it does protons.  o There are changes in the mass number but not the charge.  o A radioisotope is an isotope with an unstable nucleus that is prone to break down.  Ions o A charge created when there is an unequal number of protons and electrons within the atom.   Chemical Bonding o If the outer orbital is full then the atom is stable.  o If the outer orbital is vacant then the atom is reactive.  o Combines atoms into molecules.   Macromolecules o Nucleic Acids­ contain hereditary material such as DNA. o Proteins­ are the cell’s work force and are polymer molecules. They are composed of long amino acid chains.  o Carbohydrates­ contain structural material and are the primary source for energy. \ o Lipids­ are fats that are for storing energy.  o Polymers­ is composed of repeating subunits. o Monomers­ is one subunit.   DNA o Is a polymer, and a nucleic acid and made up of nucleotides.   Cells o Are the smallest living unit of life. o Cell Membrane­ is the border of the cell and it regulates what can enter and leave  the cell.   Chain Reactions and Enzymes o CR break molecules into smaller components or combine molecules into larger  structures.  o Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions.   How Do Organisms Reproduce? o Some organisms inherit genes from their parents.  o Each parent has a combination of alleles and the unique combination of alleles  makes individuals genetically different.   Inheritance o Involves passing DNA from one generation to the next.  Copying DNA o First step in reproduction is to copy DNA, when the cell divides each daughter  cell receives a copy of the DNA.  o DNA is very accurate; however, errors do occur which cause mutations and when  a mutation occurs a new allele is formed.  o Mutation and Reproduction guarantee genetic diversity from one generation to the next.   Spontaneous Generation o Louis Pasteur demonstrated that life only arises through the reproduction of other  living organisms.  o Change in a species over time is called evolution.   Darwin’s Theory o Individuals in a population vary from one another.  o Variations are inherited.  o In every populations many offspring die before reaching maturity and maturing.   Natural Selection o Variations may provide a survival advantage, survivors are more likely to  reproduce and the variations are passed onto offspring.  o It is described as the mechanism through which species change over time.   Linnaean Classification o Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.


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